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Supervised Master Thesis and Final Degree Projects

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Sáez, R. 2015 (Oct). Validation using performance reference data of an Airbus A320 performance model for flight simulation. Final Degree Project: German Aerospace Agency (DLR) -- Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Braunschweig -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Lenz, H. & Prats, X.
Keywords: aircraft simulation, aircraft performance, X-Plane, PEP
Abstract: The aim of this project is to improve the performance model of the QPAC (QualityPark AviationCenter) A320 in X-Plane flight simulator. In order to achieve it, tables generated with Airbus PEP (Performance Engineering Program tool) have been used. The process followed consists in using PEP tables as look-up tables for the simulator, so that via a plugin it is possible to move this data from PEP to X-Plane. It is of great interest to have a correct performance model in the simulator, as it will lead to more accurate results when testing new aeronautical concepts with flight simulations. In this project it will be shown as an example how the improvement of the model allows to obtain better results in a CDO (Continuous Descent Operations) simulation with X-Plane. The performance model in X-Plane is based in blade element theory, which is one of the big differences with the other flight simulators available nowadays. Although the results are quite good in most of the aspects of the simulation, there are great inaccuracies when it comes to model transonic and supersonic effects. In addition, thrust values are not very good neither. The performance corrections have been applied on drag and idle thrust. PEP tables have been moved to header files in C++ so that an X-Plane plugin can read them easily. In the drag case, drag coefficients are read given Mach number and lift coefficient as input values while in the idle trust case, idle thrust values are read given Mach number and altitude as input values. After applying the corrections, it has been observed a big improvement in both drag and idle thrust values, with low errors when comparing with PEP data. However, there are still some inaccuracies in the model, so some future work will be needed..
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_saez_12_validation,
      author = {Raúl Sáez},
      title = {Validation using performance reference data of an Airbus A320 performance model for flight simulation},
      school = {German Aerospace Agency (DLR) -- Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2015},
      month = {Oct},
      address = {Braunschweig -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project}
      }
  
Bendris, B. 2015 (Jul). Flight Test Preparation of a 4D-controller for time constrained Continuous Descent Operations (CDO). Final Degree Project: German Aerospace Agency (DLR) -- Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Braunschweig (Germany) -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Kohrs, R. & Prats, X.
Keywords: CDO; trajectory optimisation; flight test; TEMO
Abstract: Within the Clean Sky European project, a flight test prepared by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is foreseen and meant to prove the capability of flying a Continous Descent Operation (CDO) while satisfying a time constraint at a waypoint. In light of this event, the main objective of this project is the preparation and possible improvement of a 4D- Controller that enables this time constrained CDO. The main task of the 4D-Controller that must be evaluated is the transmission of advisories by the controller to a human-machine interface on board the aircraft. These advisories are the ones that the pilot will further on introduce into the main flight guidance systems of the aircraft in order to perform the time constrained CDO. The methodology used to evaluate the functionality of the controller has been the use of dif- ferent simulation environments through witch data regarding the controller�s behavior has been collected. The distinctive elements between the different simulation environments are the aircraft performance model used, the accuracy in simulating the meteorological conditions, as well as the graphic interface. Besides the controller�s behavior, observa- tions have been made regarding the human- machine interference and the robustness of the system. In all cases, the simulations have been performed in real-time and in manual mode, using a similar method as the one the pilot will use during the flight test. The results and observations achieved from the simulations indicate a correct behavior of the controller. The time accuracy at the control waypoint is small enough to fulfill the operational requirements from a controller point of view. The use of thrust and speed- brakes has been acceptable within the scenarios that included disturbances and null in the ones without any disturbance having observed certain differences depending on the simulation environment used. The advisories were sent by the 4D-at an acceptable rate without adding a high additional amount of workload to the pilot. These and other results are shown throughout this project.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_bendris_15_flight,
      author = {Bianca Bendris},
      title = {Flight Test Preparation of a 4D-controller for time constrained Continuous Descent Operations (CDO)},
      school = {German Aerospace Agency (DLR) -- Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2015},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Braunschweig (Germany) -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project}
      }
  
Duran, D. 2015 (Jul). Dynamic scheduling of aircraft high-lift devices and landing gear deployment for optimized continuous descent operations with required times of arrival. Final Degree Project: Netherlands Aerospace Centre (NLR) -- Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Amsterdam (The Netherlands) -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Verhoeven, R. & Prats, X.
Keywords: CDO; trajectory optimisation; TEMO; flap/slat scheduling
Abstract: This report presents a novel implementation of Time and Energy Managed Operations (TEMO) in which the dynamic scheduling of high-lift devices (flaps/slats) and landing gear deployment is used in order to reduce fuel consumption and speed brakes usage while achieving accurate Required Time of Arrivals (RTAs) at the landing runway threshold. Two solutions are proposed: one resolving time and energy deviations with strategic re- planning of the high-lift devices and/or gear deployment; and another one solving energy deviations strategically but nullifying time errors continuously with a tactical aircraft config- uration controller. The performance of both implementations has been assessed during this project. Three meteorological scenarios have been considered: International Standard Atmo- sphere (ISA), real atmosphere without wind prediction errors and real atmosphere includ- ing wind errors. 6 different RTAs have been tested for the ISA case while 5 for the other two weather scenarios. All these scenarios have been tested for both mentioned solutions and the baseline case. Moreover, three different �time to next configuration� (0, 30 and 60 seconds) have been simulated both in the tactical and strategic solution leading to a total of 112 different simulations. Results demonstrate that fuel consumption and speed brakes usage are reduced in all the studied weather scenarios when using dynamic scheduling of flaps/slats and landing gear. The tactical solution also shows better time metering during the entire flight descent. Moreover, it has been observed that less unable re-plans are produced and a wider margin of feasible RTAs is obtained with the new implementations. On the other hand, it has been shown that to achieve more accurate RTAs at the runway and increase the stabilization altitude, the performance of the aircraft engines should be better modeled to take into account their dynamics.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_duran_15_dynamic,
      author = {David Duran},
      title = {Dynamic scheduling of aircraft high-lift devices and landing gear deployment for optimized continuous descent operations with required times of arrival},
      school = {Netherlands Aerospace Centre (NLR) -- Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2015},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Amsterdam (The Netherlands) -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project}
      }
  
Matamoros, I. 2015 (Jul). Modelling flexible thrust performance for trajectory prediction applications in air traffic management. Final Degree Project: Boeing Research and Technology Europe -- Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Madrid -- Castelldefels (Spain). Advisor(s): López-Leonés, J. & Prats, X.
Keywords: trajectory prediction; reduced thrust operations; assumed temperature; take-off performance
Abstract: The Air Traffic Management (ATM) paradigm is shifting towards a scenario where Tra- jectory Predictors (TP) play a key role. They rely on Aircraft Performance Models (APM), mathematical models of the performance related characteristics of aircraft. The widespread use of non-coventional take-off procedures, such as the flexible thrust method, has arose the necessity of modelling them to keep fidelity in take-off trajectory predictions. This project, carried out with Boeing Research & Technology Europe (BR&TE) and upon request of EUROCONROL, arises in response to the current lack in the APM market of a validated methodology to model reduced thrust operations. Its goal is to propose a com- plete and validated model to compute reduced thrust using Assumed Temperature (AT). The proposed methodology is composed by a model of AT and a thrust model properly validated for flexible thrust computations. To accomplish this goal, a new specification of the AT model that is being developed by BR&TE has been implemented, based upon a set of improvements suggested by EU- ROCONTROL. In order to determine a valid thrust model for flexible thrust computations, EUROCONTROL’S Base of Aricraft Data (BADA) and Aircraft Noise Performance (ANP) APMs have been validated. These validations have been carried out with different official Boeing’s performance software: the Standard Take-off Analysis Software (STAS) and the Boeing Climbout Program (BCOP). As a result of the study different order polynomials that model the AT as a function of the take-off conditions have been produced. In addition, it has been concluded that ANP contains a valid thrust model for flexible thrust calculations, whereas the current version of BADA is not valid to compute thrust during the take-off phase. A first application of this method has been put into effect by developing a prototype of a Take-off Trajectory Predictor (TTP) that implements the flexible thrust model. This proto- type is intended to be integrated in Boeing’s trajectory computation infrastructure in the future as a take-off and landing module and needs to be improved, validated with Boeing’s performance software and integrated as future work.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_Matamoros_15_modelling,
      author = {Ismael Matamoros},
      title = {Modelling flexible thrust performance for trajectory prediction applications in air traffic management},
      school = {Boeing Research and Technology Europe -- Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2015},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Madrid -- Castelldefels (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project}
      }
  
Sotillos, L. 2015 (Jul). Study of optimisation of LOC and VOR antennas architecture on Airbus fleet. Final Degree Project: Airbus -- Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Toulouse (France) -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Torres, N.
Keywords: VOR, LOC, antenas, Airbus
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_sotillos_15_study,
      author = {Laura Sotillos},
      title = {Study of optimisation of LOC and VOR antennas architecture on Airbus fleet},
      school = {Airbus -- Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2015},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Toulouse (France) -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project}
      }
  
Sampedro, R. 2015 (Jun). Software de decodificación de mensajes SBAS para análisis de modelado ionosférico en EGNOS. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. & Hernández-Pajares, M. (In Spanish).
Keywords: GNSS; EGNOS; ionospheric corrections
Abstract: The objective of this TFG is the implementation of an extraction tool of ionospheric data through messages of EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service), which allows to monitor the system behavior in problematic days, such as solar storms or geomagnetic disturbances and to analyze the current historical Available FTP service in the European Space Agency (ESA). EMS2IEWAS generate ionospheric data with a resolution (15 min) better that provided by the ESA intervals of 2 hour, enabling to IOnospheric determination and Navigation based on Satellite And Terrestrial systems (ION SAT) make more accurate comparisons within their investigations. During the performance of this TFG was necessary to understand the global positioning system GPS, limits, problems or deficiencies thereof and current solutions. In this work is documented and explains the operation of both GPS and EGNOS systems with emphasis on their ionospheric models. Operation and existing types of messages Satellite Augmentative Based Systems (SBAS), programmed into the software, for obtaining ionospheric data. The software has been developed in Java, object-oriented, significantly improving the flexibility and understanding compare with other existing decoders programming softwares. This tool developed is compatible with various operating systems and is the first free tool with the ability to decode multiple messages of EGNOS. The software has been developed within the project Monitor2 from ESA, in conjunction with the software IEWAS made by IONSAT research group. The TFG has contributed a detailed analysis of the data provided by the software during the geomagnetic storm of St. Patrick (March 2015) and the detection of two strips of errors with a 36-hour shift in the data stored in the server Message EGNOS Server (EMS) of the ESA. This important fact has been notified through a comprehensive report to the ESA to promote its corrections.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_sampedro_15_software,
      author = {Rodrigo Sampedro},
      title = {Software de decodificación de mensajes SBAS para análisis de modelado ionosférico en EGNOS},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2015},
      month = {Jun},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(In Spanish)}
      }
  
Dalmau, R. 2014 (Jul). TEMO versus FMS performance comparison. Final Degree Project: Netherlands Aerospace Centre (NLR) -- Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Amsterdam (The Netherlands) -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Verhoeven, R. & Prats, X.
Keywords: CDO; trajectory optimisation; TEMO; FMS
Abstract: The Time and Energy Managed Operations (TEMO) concept designed for Continuous De- scent Operations (CDO) consists on a trajectory prediction part and an execution part. The trajectory prediction part generates an optimised descent trajectory based upon pre- defined criteria (e.g. minimum noise, minimum fuel, minimum time or a tradeoff between time and fuel). Fast Optimisation for Continuous Descent Approaches (FASTOP), devel- oped under the CleanSky programme, is an existing implementation of such a trajectory optimiser suitable for use in TEMO. The execution of a TEMO descent can be performed using various guidance control concepts. In the strategic guidance control concept, the time and energy deviations of the actual aircraft trajectory with respect the predictions are continuously monitored. If they exceed a certain error threshold a new trajectory is recomputed starting from the current aircraft position. The primary aim of this project is to compare a TEMO concept implementation using FASTOP for the trajectory prediction part and strategic guidance for the execution part with a typical Flight Management Sys- tem (FMS) trajectory prediction and guidance algorithms, trying to quantify its benefits and potential drawbacks.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_dalmau_14_TEMO,
      author = {Ramon Dalmau},
      title = {TEMO versus FMS performance comparison},
      school = {Netherlands Aerospace Centre (NLR) -- Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2014},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Amsterdam (The Netherlands) -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project}
      }
  
Garcia, S. 2014 (Jun). Energy usage optimization in HEMAV RPAS platform. Final Degree Project: HEMAV -- Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Ferraz, C. & Prats, X.
Keywords: UAS; hexacopter; energy usage
Abstract: This document contains the results of the energy usage optimization in HEMAV test-bed. It has been developed as part of an internship in HEMAV, a young European company based in Molins de Rei, Barcelona dedicated to make safe civil services with RPAS technology. The main objectives of this study are increase the flight time of the hexacopter by studying the behaviour of different propellers and increasing or decreasing the number of batteries. And, finally, study the influence of performing different paths in the autonomy. First of all, it is proposed to create a data base where after each mission the whole data collected would be downloaded, because, then, this data could be analysed. And doing this, HEMAV would be able to know what the most usual manoeuvres and operations are and they could try to increase their efficiency. The main conclusion extracted from the propellers study is that the material of the propeller does not have a notable effect in terms of thrust. But when looking at the consumption, it can be seen a positive effect, less consumption, when the material is carbon fibre instead of nylon. In addition, during the propellers study it was known that pitch is one of the important factors, smaller propeller pitch means more thrust. But, also, it was known that for bigger propeller pitches the necessary acceleration to change from a lower velocity to a higher velocity is smaller than in the contrary case. After the propellers study, the effect of having more batteries in the platform was analysed and the main conclusion is that there is a point where although more batteries are added, the flight time do not increase more. This point is around the 1246 gr of the propeller test battery, and it coincides for the three propellers. So doubling the battery capacity does not mean doubling the hover flight time. Also, the author realized, in the dynamic test, that the procedure that has to be followed before performing a flight is very large. And that there are a lot of things that should be taken into account, such as sensors implementation, check that everything is safe and works properly, find a place to fly, and check that all is still running before doing the test. Finally, it was verified that the hexacopter consumes a lot when it has to maintain the same position, the same as when there are sudden changes in velocity.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_garcia_14_energy,
      author = {Sara Garcia},
      title = {Energy usage optimization in HEMAV RPAS platform},
      school = {HEMAV -- Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2014},
      month = {Jun},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project}
      }
  
Solé, R. 2013 (Jul). Helicopter IFR route between Muchamiel and Albacete. Final Degree Project: Pildo Labs -- Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Barcelona -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. & Torres, M. (Confidential).
Keywords: APV, PInS, RNAV procedure design
Abstract: This document exposes the procedures and results obtained for the design of an EGNOS based APV-RNAV procedure at Igualada-Ódena’s aerodrome. The main objective of the procedure is to allow cat A or B aircraft to execute APV approaches (approach type between a non precision and a precision approach in terms of required performances), in order that the aerodrome users are able to operate in it under adverse meteorological conditions. During the design it was necessary to carry out an obstacle study almost from the scratch since no previous material was available, which supposed spending a lots of time. This study included the analysis of digital cartography, as well as a field data campaign to collect the coordinates of those obstacles not included in the ortophotos. The results of this study were then introduced into a software program to calculate the OCA/H (Obstacle Clearance Altitude/Height) values. After that, using Autocad Map 2004, the procedure was completed, including the TAA (Terminal Area Approach) for the arrival segment. The obtained results show that the goal of defining an EGNOS based APVRNAV approach has been achieved. However, although the airfield characteristics allow the execution of an APV approach, the obstacle clearance height obtained for the final straight in approach is seen to be pretty high far from the expected operational minima defined for APV-SBAS approaches. Concretely, the obtained OCH is finally fixed at 658.6 meters height, thus establishing that the missed approach would commenceat 11.5 km from the LTP (Landing Threshold Point). Hence, the pilot will be able to see the runway from this point only if the visibility is very good. It is expected that a kind of approach with part of the final approach segment disaligned with the runway axis, the so-called curved approaches, could improve the first OCH obtained for the Igualada-Odena aerodrome, while reducing the minima to the SBAS operational ones. This assessment is advanced as a future work from the first draft material related still under discussion at ICAO level.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_sole_13_helicopter,
      author = {Ramon Solé},
      title = {Helicopter IFR route between Muchamiel and Albacete},
      school = {Pildo Labs -- Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2013},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Barcelona -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(Confidential)}
      }
  
Carbonell, E. 2012 (Jul). Evaluation of VFR procedures for UAS at non-controlled aerodromes. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. & Perez-Batlle, M. (In Catalan).
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), visual flight rules (VFR), NASA TLX, work load analysis
Abstract: The ICARUS research group from the UPC has developed a flight procedure for the operation of UUAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) in non-controlled aerodromes operated under visual flight rules. This work has been integrated into the final phase of this development: its validation with simulations.
We aimed to generate conflicts derived from the use of this procedure through visual flight simulations combined with an UAS (Unmmaned Aerial System) operation with the objective to check its effectiveness and safety. A total of two planes and one UAV have take part on the simulations, which used X-Plane flight simulator.
This work presents a state of the art review on workload analysis methods. Amongst all existing ones, and more precisely between the two more popular (NASA TLX and SWAT), NASA TLX has been finally chosen and used to evaluate the subjective mental workload from pilots during the simulations. Moreover, a tool integrated into the avionics architecture of the UAV that allows to obtain the telemetry data from all the participants in the simulation called Datalogger has been programmed and used satisfactorily in the simulations.
A total of 5 simulations have been performed with the maximum possible realism in terms of graphic quality (improving the simulator standard performance) or instrumentation (with additional push to talk software for communications or different screens used for the pilots) inter alia. With these improvements, the level of reliability and credibility of the simulations has been deemed satisfactory. The chosen scenario has been the aerodrome of Auch, the south of France.
This work is a first step for future tests which would continue in line of the verification of the procedure once reaches a higher level of maturity. Nevertheless, some issues have been already identified, such as the incompatibility between different aircrafts with significant differences in flight performances, the lack of a regulatory framework and the lack of standardised procedures in case of emergency, which implies a remarkable increase of the subjective mental workload.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_carbonell_12_evaluation,
      author = {Ernest Carbonell},
      title = {Evaluation of VFR procedures for UAS at non-controlled aerodromes},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2012},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(In Catalan)}
      }
  
Garrido, D. 2012 (Jul). Development of a software tool for managing maintenance center for a fleet A-320. Final Degree Project: IBERIA -- Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), El Prat de Llobregat -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Fraile, S. & Prats, X. (in Spanish).
Keywords: Aircraft maintenance, Airbus A320, sofware development
Abstract: This work is based on two parts. The first refers to the main aviation regulations, currently in effect, published by major aeronautical legislative bodies that nowadays are responsible for ensuring safety of aircraft operations and therefore, the maintenance of these, at International, European or national level. Abroad understanding is given of the requirements to be met by a maintenance organization in order to be compliant with regulations and to be duly certified. All aspects, at the level of documentation required by the aircraft maintenance center and data management necessary to achieve optimal maintenance program are described in this project. The second part consists of the specification, design and implementation of a computer program, using Excel and Visual Basic. This program is conceived to be a helpful tool in managing the maintenance of a fleet of aircraft, which will use a database of aircraft, jobs, equipment and personnel, in order to provide fundamental information to manage the maintenance of the whole fleet. The program would serves as a tool to a company, which in the present study has adapted to a fleet of ten aircraft. However, it could be easily expanded, by modifying the database in Excel properly, to a fleet with a higher number of aircraft or a maintenance planning with more scheduled tasks. .
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_garrido_12_development,
      author = {David Garrido},
      title = {Development of a software tool for managing maintenance center for a fleet A-320},
      school = {IBERIA -- Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2012},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {El Prat de Llobregat -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Spanish)}
      }
  
Melgosa, M. 2012 (Jul). Study of Ground delay programs and Speed reduction strategies. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Delgado, L. & Prats, X. (In Spanish).
Keywords: ground delay programs (GDP), K-means, statistical analysis, speed reduction, ATFM
Abstract: The Ground Delay Program (GDP) and the Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) concepts have been studied in this project. A statistical analysis on all GDPs that occurred during 2006 in the United States of America has been done. Some statistics have been derived on the number of GDPs, their causes, the assigned delay and the number of affected flights per airport.
Results show that the 90% of the GDPs took place in only 16 airports, being Newark (EWR), in New York, the airport with more regulations. In addition, the 74% of the GDPs were caused by bad weather conditions and the 90% of the total delay was assigned only in 10 airports, being Chicago the airport with more delay assigned. A same behaviour was observed with the number of affected flights: the 90% of the flights had as a destination only 10 different airports and Chicago again, was the airport with more affected flights. A clear relationship exists between the number of affected flights and the assigned delay. However, many airports with more flights and delay are also in the highest positions of the number of GDPs per airport list.
Using the K-means algorithm GDPs have been classified into clusters with similar characteristics. Cluster centroids for Newark (EWR) have been used to simulate a cruise speed reduction strategy aiming to absorb part of the assigned GDP delay airborne, by flying slower but consuming the same amount of fuel than in the nominal flight. In case the GDP is cancelled, aircraft flying at reduced speed can fly recover some delay, by speeding to the nominal speed, but without incurring with extra fuel consumption. The data from the Enhanced Traffic Management System (ETMS) has been used in order to simulate the traffic with destination EWR in two 2006 days. All aircrafts types has been classified into Airbus types and their performances have been computed using the Airbus PEP Suite. Finally, the traffic has been simulated using the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET).
The simulation results showed that the speed reduction effects depend on the cancellation time and the number of flights flying at that time. Results show that between 4% to 5% of the total delay can be absorbed in the air. Simulating the Newark GDPs, using the centroids data and cancelling them at their average cancellation time, a 7% of delay can be recovered in the cluster 1 using the speed reduction strategy, 33% in the cluster 2 and 31% in the cluster 3 at no extra fuel consumption.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_melgosa_12_study,
      author = {Marc Melgosa},
      title = {Study of Ground delay programs and Speed reduction strategies},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2012},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(In Spanish)}
      }
  
Cuevas, V. 2012 (Mar). Design a set of practical activities of air traffic simulations. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. (in Spanish).
Keywords: Air Traffic Management (ATM), Air Traffic Control (ATC), eDEP, teaching
Abstract: This project aims to create a set of simulations of air traffic control for the course "Air Transport Infrastructures" of the Engineering Degrees in Air Navigation and Airports. To carry out these practices an Eurcocontrol program called eDEP has been used, allowing us to simulate our own created airspaces and control the flights we have introduced. It was necessary to configure eDEP in distributed mode, meaning that a computer was set up as server manages the traffic of the simulation and the other computers are running the display of the required position (controller or pilot) but the traffic is read from the server. In this way, when the pilot makes changes on a plane the controller is able to see it in his/her radar screen. For these practices we have decided to simulate the Barcelona FIR/UIR, simplifying of the current air space to have less control sectors. In total 12 sectors are implemented for the simulations. Each sector is occupied by 3 people, a tactical controller, a planner controller and a pilot. Traffic used came originally from a a file provided by Eurocontrol. Being a real traffic set, it was necessary to simplify it, so the students were able to control it. Four simulations have been designed, one for each type of sector, en-route, TMA and approach. In each practice has created a specific traffic based on the traffic we had previously. Have also been created specific conflicts to see how students reacted to these incidents. Practice 4 could not be performed because of its complexity and because it was determined that did not provide new knowledge to students. Finally we analyze the practices that have been carried out by students of the subject of "Air Transport Infrastructures". The practices went well, and their objectives were achieved.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_cuevas_12_design,
      author = {V�ctor Cuevas},
      title = {Design a set of practical activities of air traffic simulations},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2012},
      month = {Mar},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Spanish)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/15294}
      }
  
Jaime, À. 2011 (Aug). Enhancing a RNAV guidance system for UAS with fly over waypoints and track to a fix path terminators. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Santamaria, E. & Prats, X.
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, flight plan, RNAV
Abstract: The ICARUS research group is developing an UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) architecture so as to take advantage of them in civil applications, such as fire detection. Such architecture is based on different services, which include the flight service. The flight service is responsible for flying the UAS according to a flight plan. The aim of this project is to emulate a control loop so as to enable the UAS on-board autopilot perform FO+TF (Fly Over + Track to a Fix) transitions, taking into account RNAV legs and WPs (Waypoints). Regarding this autopilot capability, then new WPs are computed to deceive this autopilot so as to fly other types of WPs and transitions such as FO+DF (Fly Over + Direct to a Fix), FO+RF (Fly Over + Radius to a Fix) and FB+TF (Fly by + Track to a Fix). The work has been divided in four main blocks. Firstly, there is a brief introduction to the ICARUS UAS Architecture and the basic RNAV parameters. Next, the second block defines the main characteristics of the FO+TF control loop. Next to that, by using several equations, the position of otherWPs is defined, in order to fly other types of transitions. The third chapter includes the implementation of the first two chapters in the code. Finally, the experimental part includes the testing with the aid of FGFS (Flight Gear Flight Simulator) and Google Earth. One of the main limitations of our system is the effect of wind and that is referred in the last sections of this project. It is important to understand the limitations and to be aware of them. However, the result of the project is completely satisfying.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_jaime_11_enhancing,
      author = {Àlvar Jaime},
      title = {Enhancing a RNAV guidance system for UAS with fly over waypoints and track to a fix path terminators},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2011},
      month = {Aug},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/12945}
      }
  
Valls, M. 2011 (Jul). Design a set of practical activities focused on the subject of Air Transport Infrastructures. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. (In Catalan).
Keywords: Air Traffic Management (ATM), Air Traffic Control (ATC), eDEP, teaching
Abstract: This Project aims to create a series of exercises and activities for the course "Air Transport Infrastructures", which appears with the new curricula for Bachelor of Engineering Degree in Air Navigation and Engineering Degree in Airports. On the one hand we have the theoretical exercises, including a questionnaire on a book that addresses the management of airspace, several flight situations to fill in the flight plan form, and an analysis of aeronautical charts as questionnaire. On the other hand, apart from the previous exercises, we have designed a practice that is a simulation in which students perform as air controllers. Due to the complexity of the practice itself, the bulk of the project focuses on the preparation of this practice. To create the air control practice we have used two Eurocontrol programs, Skyview 2 and eDEP, in order to create a simulation scenario that represents air traffic control airspace in Barcelona. Skyview 2 has allowed us to obtain data from European airspace (navigation aids, waypoints, sectoritzacions, airports...), while eDEP is the simulation engine that we used, configuring it properly. In this practice, there are different control positions, such as en route, terminal maneuvering area and approach. We also considered two different roles: tactical controller and planner controller. A total of 22 control sites are set. Due to the complexity of real sectorization of the airspace, this Project proposes to simplify it because the controllers are students in a school laboratory, not professionals. Thus, we propose a simplified scenario where there are three en route sectors, two sectors to cover the Palma de Mallorca TMA, two more by the Barcelona TMA and one for the Valencia TMA. Moreover, there are six sectors defined as approach (Girona, Reus, Barcelona, Palma de Mallorca, Menorca and Ibiza). In addition, we used a file that the School already had about European air traffic to have a base to enter the air traffic in our simulation scenario.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_valls_11_design,
      author = {Marc Valls},
      title = {Design a set of practical activities focused on the subject of Air Transport Infrastructures},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2011},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(In Catalan)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/12939}
      }
  
Alonso, A. 2011 (Jun). Implementation of the Computed Computer Assisted Slot Allocation System (CASA) algorithm from the Central Flow Management Unit (CFMU). Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Delgado, L. (in Spanish).
Keywords: CFMU, agent base programming, simulation, RAMS
Abstract: Due to the large volume of traffic existing in Europe , the slot allocation has became a basic tool for the air flow management in an efficient way. In broad terms we could say that the slot allocation is the process responsible for management or optimize the demand/capacity balance, but keeping safety as a priority. The responsible for the allocation system is the Computer Assisted Slot Allocation (CASA). It's an automatic and centralizated algorithm and it’s included inside CFMU (Central Flow Management Unit), the Eurocontrol organization’s responsible for the management of the air traffic flow de in Europe. However, the whole slot or delays allocation process is a measure aims to priorize the safety, and it’s clear that an inefficient allocation can be very harmful, for the air operators in a special way, because it can produce serious financial losses. Therefore due to the importance of this process we want implement this useful tool. Also the fact of making it compatible with Eurocontrol RAMS Simulator, allowed us observe and analyze accurately, the result of slot allocation in very fidelity stages.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_alonso_11_implementation,
      author = {Alejandro Alonso},
      title = {Implementation of the Computed Computer Assisted Slot Allocation System (CASA) algorithm from the Central Flow Management Unit (CFMU)},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2011},
      month = {Jun},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Spanish)},
      url = {http://upcommons.upc.edu/pfc/handle/2099.1/12499}
      }
  
Expósito, D. & Vela, S. 2011 (Jun). Study of aircraft take-off performance for the design of noise abatement procedures. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. (In Catalan).
Keywords: Aircraft performance, take-off performance, noise abatement
Abstract: This project is a contribution to current research which deals withminimizing the noise impact produced by aircraft at take-off operations. In particular, this work studies the distance from the brake release to the point where the take-off noise abatement procedure starts, without going into detail on the definition of such a procedure. All the study is carried out for Airbus A320 and A321 aircraft models, flying to 5 typical European destinations from Girona-Costa Brava airport. The distance where these types of procedures are initiated is the distance when the aircraft reaches 400 ft above the runway. Thus, this distance affects the final design of the noise abatement procedures that can be defined at the airport. We calculate the distances TOR (Take Off Runway) and TOD (Take Off Distance) required by the aircraft at different flap/slats configurations and for each route considered. In addition we assessed the effect of obstacles on these take-off distances. To achieve the objectives of this project we used a software suite developed by Airbus: the Performance Engineering Programs (PEP). These software are able to compute a wide range of flight operational parameters. Due to the extensive amount of data and files to process, we have automated the process of entering and processing data using scripting language designed and programmed with Linux Bash-Shell. As principal result, we found that the distance that the noise abatement procedure shall begin is greater for the A321 model, the most distant destination, with maximum take-off speed, maximum payload, higher cost index and flaps/slats take-off configuration CONF 1+F. The presence of obstacles around the runway causes an increase in the distances TOR and TOD but it almost does not affect the distance at which begins the take-off procedure. We determined that the costindex does not practically affect on these distances. The maximum distance where the noise abatement procedure could begin is 2865 m from the brake release, while the minimum one is 1545 m.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_exposito_11_study,
      author = {Daniel Expósito and Sergi Vela},
      title = {Study of aircraft take-off performance for the design of noise abatement procedures},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2011},
      month = {Jun},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(In Catalan)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/12516}
      }
  
Gonzalez, I. 2011 (Mar). Algorithm for the optimization of routes in 2D. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Delgado, L. (in Spanish).
Keywords: Dijkstra, airways, route computation, optimization
Abstract: In this project has been developed an application which allows to know the shortest route between two points of the European airspace, if it exists. The application also computes the distance which has travel the airplane and the time of the flight, for this we must enter different parameters before as mach and flight level of cruising. At the time fpr choosing the departure and arrival points, there are two options, fly between airports or fly between waypoints or navaids, we must choose the second option, because the program doesn’t allows to calculate the route between two airports because although they were loaded, they aren’t connected with other points of the graph as the database from which information has been extracted did not contain these connections.
The information necessary for create the graph has been extracted of a SkyView database. SkyView is a program which contains all information of waypoints, navaids, airways, boundaries, etc. of the European airspace. Also this program has been used for make checks of the results at the time of calculate the different routes with the application and so to ensure that works correctly. The application has been programmed with Eclipse in the Linux operating system, so it only works in this operating system. The programming language which has been used is c++ and sql for read the database, and finally the graphic design has been realized with qtDesigner. At the time of program the application hasn’t been developed without control, but has been developed a series of documents, which can find in the appendices, which has been facilitate its creation. Firstly it was developed a document with use software cases, where specifies the program stakeholders and which will be the different features. From this document has been developed a document of requirements software specification, where are detailed the different functional and nonfunctional requirements of the application. For the design phase has been developed a document of software architecture where was found class diagrams and sequence diagrams of the application. Finally, have been developed validation tests, for once the application check that it met the initial requirements. The report has been written in LATEX.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_ismael_11_algorithm,
      author = {Ismael Gonzalez},
      title = {Algorithm for the optimization of routes in 2D},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2011},
      month = {Mar},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Spanish)},
      url = {http://upcommons.upc.edu/pfc/handle/2099.1/11743}
      }
  
Carretero, F. 2010 (Nov). Global optimization with genetic algorithms. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Delgado, L. (in Spanish).
Keywords: Optimization, global, algorithm, genetic
Abstract: The main goal of this TFC is to introduce the reader into the world of global optimization methods with Genetic Algorithms. In order to achieve this goal, we will begin by explaining the theoretical basis they are based upon, next we will try to corroborate them empirically by means of some simple tests. Taking into account the obtained results and all we have learnt we will try to solve a more complex and real problem.
Specifically, we will try to equilibrate the load of the decks of an airplane. Due to the complexity of our problem we will find some trouble, common in those cases, like beginning with an idea and having to change it and model it until we achieve a system able to solve the problem.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_carretero_10_global,
      author = {Félix Carretero},
      title = {Global optimization with genetic algorithms},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2010},
      month = {Nov},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Spanish)},
      url = {http://upcommons.upc.edu/pfc/handle/2099.1/10314}
      }
  
Llorens, P. & Montano, R. 2010 (Nov). Assessment of the capacity of Barcelona airport. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Delgado, L. (in Spanish).
Keywords: capacity, airport, assessment, simulation, theoric, data, RAMS
Abstract: The study of the capacity of an airport has been -and will keep being- one of the most common and necessary activities to do when designing an airport. An efficient airport means a good performance, and therefore good incomes. To design the air-side of an airport, we must find the proper configurations according to the estimation of traffic that we aim to obtain. We also need to look further at the future, and not only prediccting how will it change in the following years of its opening. What will happen in 10 years? Will it need an extension? Will we have enough space to satisfy the demand? This is intended to stress the importance of forecasts and analysis that are done for the capacity of an airport. This TFC studies the capacity of the airport of Barcelona form a teorical, simulation and data analysis point of view.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_llorens_11_assessment,
      author = {Pere Llorens and Raquel Montano},
      title = {Assessment of the capacity of Barcelona airport},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2010},
      month = {Nov},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Spanish)},
      url = {http://upcommons.upc.edu/pfc/handle/2099.1/9650}
      }
  
Pascual, J. 2010 (may). Set up of Eurocontrol air traffic simulator fo ATC simulations. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Delgado, L.
Keywords: air traffic simulator, air traffic control, ATC, simulation, eDEP
Abstract: In this Project, the set-up of an air traffic control simulator has been carried out. eDEP simulator, provided by Eurocontrol, has been the one used. As a part of the Project, the platform preparation for its execution in a local area network has been done. Also some adaptations needed for a practice environment. It�s intended to use the eDEP platform for the practical part of some of the subjects of the Aeronautical Degree. Using Eclipse development environment, Java code corresponding to eDEP classes have been prepared and compiled. By using Eclipse, also some configuration files needed to execute eDEP on a network had been created and executable files have been generated to launch simulation. Also airspace and traffic files for three different simulations had been prepared. Two of them are air traffic control on the cruise phase and the third one will simulate approach control. One of the simulations for cruise control is using FIR/UIR Barcelona airspace data. For this simulation, the airspace file (containing position of navigation aids, airways and sectorization) and the traffic file that will be used in the practice have been created. Limitations of eDEP as air traffic simulation platform have been evaluated and it has come to the conclusi�n that could be interesting the development of some additional code to simulate a flight strip system. An additional limitation detected is the non-availability of voice communications between controller positions and pilot positions. For the flight strip system an study of software engineering has been carried out. Regarding the lack of voice communications, an VoIP software running over a LAN has been used. During the Project, an important effort about documentation has been performed. Has been documented from the compilation and execution with Eclipse to the configuration of airspace and traffic files. A basic user manual has been prepared for the controller positions and for the pilot positions.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_pascual_10_setup,
      author = {Javier Pascual},
      title = {Set up of Eurocontrol air traffic simulator fo ATC simulations},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2010},
      month = {may},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      url = {http://upcommons.upc.edu/pfc/handle/2099.1/9660}
      }
  
Mulet, R. 2009 (Oct). Feasibility Study of Commercial Operations at Andorra-Pirineus Airport. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Delgado, L. & Pous, F.
Keywords: airport operations, commercial operations, limitations of use
Abstract: The project pretends to perform a technical and commercial study about the Andorra - Pyrenees airport.
The target is to study the feasibility of the operations at the airport in its current status and whether it is possible to improve it.
The study analyzes two kinds of air traffic which the airport is capable to attract, the international and the regional traffic.
Studying the demand, has been determined that exists a potential market of foreign visitors, who use other airports for their travels and that the Andorra – Pyrenees airport can capture this passenger traffic.
For studying the feasibility of the operations, two target cases have been defined, which are the most representatives, as well as the minimum number of passengers to transport in each operation, and also two aircrafts which permit to cover the kinds of traffic studied.
The current situation of the facilities has been studied and then, the feasibility of the flights between La Seu d’Urgell and the target destinations and vice versa. It has been calculated along the year with the different meteorological conditions and both aircraft design.
The study of the feasibility of the flights has been performed from the point of view of an airline operator.
The results show that in the current conditions, it is not possible to achieve the objectives set, and therefore the target operations are not feasible. With the aircrafts design and the target routes, currently, the airport is not feasible.
For achieving the objectives set, it has been studied whether introducing improvements in the runway length and defining a new contingency procedure it is possible to reach the objectives.
The results show that there are significant changes in the final results, which permit to reach the expected objectives, making the target operations feasible.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_mulet_09_feasibility,
      author = {Roger Mulet},
      title = {Feasibility Study of Commercial Operations at Andorra-Pirineus Airport},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Oct},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      url = {http://upcommons.upc.edu/pfc/handle/2099.1/8178}
      }
  
Casquero, A. 2009 (Jul). Estimation of capacity required for AMS(R)S communications around 2020 over european area. Final Degree Project: Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) -- Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Toulouse (France) -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Gonzalez-Pérez, H. & Prats, X.
Keywords: CNS, satellite communications, capacity,
Abstract: Air traffic forecast projects an important growth of aircraft movements and new communications means will be necessary. First step in the design phase is the communication needs definition. Due to operational needs and according to SESAR (Single European Sky ATM Research) MasterPlan, future air-ground communication architecture for safety aeronautical communications will be probably composed by two systems (one terrestrial and one satellite-based). Since current communication means are based on cellular technologies, past methodologies do not provide information for satellite design. The objective of this project is to develop a technologically independent methodology to evaluate the safety aeronautical communications profile according to current information about future data-based air-ground communications. This assessment pretends to be a starting point for a possible doctoral thesis. This thesis can be focused on two items, or both of them:
1) Develop a model in order to define the messages exchange and the communications profile of the future air traffic taking into account adverse situations that will cause a change on 4D contract. To do that, complex systems theories based on probability must be used and a causality model must be developed. Once the communications profile is defined, a satellite system solution will be analyzed.
2) 4D trajectory concept hasn’t been defined yet. SESAR is working on it. With the thesis, it is pretended to go into this concept in depth in order to be able to discuss SESAR publications and be useful as a feedback for the concept definition.
The activities carried out with this project can be summed up in: 4) Documentation • Understanding the ATM communications saturation problem and the need to improve them • 4D trajectory-based contracts • Communication protocols for future aeronautical communications 5) Safety aeronautical communications profile assessment • Traffic profile for 1 flight and study of instances generation methods • Traffic profile for 2020 forecasted traffic over ECAC (European Civil Aviation Conference) area - Analysis of input parameters and results - Result testing to validate them and simulator bugs correction (C++) - Statistics extraction from results (MATLAB) - Simulator improvements - Comparison with ESA (European Space Agency) results 6) Satellite-based communication protocol assessment • GMR-1 (Geo Mobile Radio-1) Astrium’s simulator behaviour and results analysis Conclusions and results presented in this document can be used in order to provide the basis for a future open discussion which will help to enhance the results.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_casquero_09_estimation,
      author = {Albert Casquero},
      title = {Estimation of capacity required for AMS(R)S communications around 2020 over european area},
      school = {Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) -- Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Toulouse (France) -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/8164}
      }
  
Ferraz, C. 2009 (Jul). Design of take-off and landing operational procedures for unmanned aerial vehicles. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X.
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, aircraft operations, integration to civil airspace
Abstract: An Unmanned Aerial System (UAV) is an aerial vehicle with no onboard pilot, that is, an aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from, within or on the aircraft. With the avionics technological evolution, UAVs become a valid option to perform civil missions. But there still exist a division between the manned and unmanned aerial vehicles that is making this evolution a non trivial issue. Group ICARUS is carrying out the development of an UAV Services Abstraction Layer (USAL), which main objective is to lower the economical costs and provide a standardized software layer so as to not depend on the on-board autopilot‟s architecture. The work carried out in this final degree project takes place within the framework research that ICARUS group is performing. The aim of this work is to design such take-off and landing procedures for UAVs that could able these airframes to develop properly within manned traffic airspace. This definition should take into account the different flight rules and the existence or not of air traffic control services. In addition, the guidelines for the further development of the Human Machine Interface for these procedures are expected. First, a study about the state of the art of the manned airspace and the system which occupies us is done. With the information provided we have developed the concept of operations for these procedures, always trying to bother as less as possible the other traffic. Improving where possible and being conservative where not. Once the procedures with its parameters and dependencies have been set, the guidelines for the developing of the ground segment screens and interaction between the involved parts of the whole system has been established.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_ferraz_09_design,
      author = {Carlos Ferraz},
      title = {Design of take-off and landing operational procedures for unmanned aerial vehicles},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/7288}
      }
  
Trillo, N. 2009 (Jul). RNAV guidance system design for unmanned aerial vehicles. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. & Santamaria, E.
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, flight plan, RNAV
Abstract: The research group Icarus is developing an UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) with the aim of exploiting the advantages of the UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) through civil applications. The architecture is based on several flight services that cooperate to perform the mission defined on the flight plan. The FPM (Flight Plan Manager) processes this flight plan, generates the corresponding waypoints (WPs) and sends the WPs to the VAS (Virtual Autopilot System) which is the only service that interacts with the on-board autopilot. Thus, the VAS can be adapted to any on-board autopilot solution and enables the other services to maintain their structure. The objective of this work is to increase the UAS flexibility by enhancing the FPM. Considering a basic autopilot system with limited capabilities, the FPM will generate the corresponding extra WPs to perform the mission. A mission is divided into several legs which is a concept borrowed from RNAV procedures. Once the FPM has generated the required WPs to perform the RNAV legs, the VAS, during the mission, continuously updates the Heading, the Altitude and the Speed so that the aircraft reach the next WP. The work has been ivided into a theoretical and a practical part. The theoretical one defines, by using several equations, the position and the kind of the extra WPs from the programmer’s point of view. Then, the practical part implements the theoretical one by modifying the correct code parts of the FPM. The application is compiled and, with the aid of a simulation environment, the viability of the enhanced system can be assessed. The simulation environment is formed, basically, by the FlightGear Flight Simulator whose function is to emulate the on-board autopilot and Google Earth that shows the evolution of the mission as well as the generated WPs. Initially, the objectives were to implement several RNAV legs by supposing three cases of basic autopilot capabilities: FO+DF (Fly-Over + Direct to a Fix), FO+TF (Fly-Over + Track to a Fix) and FB+TF (Fly-By + Track to a Fix). However, some restrictions have been found due to several reasons. On one hand, the CF (Course to a Fix) has been discarded because of its high complexity and the limited usefulness for the UAV’s context. On the other hand, the FO+TF autopilot case have not been implemented due to the on-board autopilot solutions. The point is that the only entrance parameters these autopilot solutions accept are the Heading, the Speed and the Altitude. As the VAS is designed to interact with the on-board autopilot, it has, actually, the same restriction. That means there is no way of guiding the aircraft to the track between the initial and final WPs of a leg. Therefore, a system that performs FO+TF as the basic leg can not be simulated, even so, the required equations have been computed and included in the work. We understand these limitations because a basic system is being improved. What really matters is to be aware of these restrictions and to know how they are affecting our system. Anyhow, in general, the result of the work is completely satisfactory.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_trillo_09_rnav,
      author = {Noel Trillo},
      title = {RNAV guidance system design for unmanned aerial vehicles},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/7286}
      }
  
Vallribera, C. 2009 (Jul). Setup of a Continuing Airworthiness Management Organization (CAMO). Final Degree Project: WAeronautica -- Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Barcelona -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Álvarez, D. & Prats, X. (in Catalan, Confidential).
Keywords: Continuing Airworthiness Management Organisation, European Aviation Safety Agency, balloons
Abstract: The present document contains a detailed account of the preparation and implementation project of a Continuing Airworthiness Management Organisation (CAMO) for the company ULTRAMAGIC. It is part of the global project aiming at their approval as a Part M Organisation and it has been developed in agreement with the company W AERONAUTICA Consultoria i Enginyeria S.L. ULTRAMAGIC is a Catalan company which designs and produces balloons and cold air inflatables. As such, it is subject to the specifications of the European regulations elaborated by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) regarding design, production and maintenance of aircrafts, components and systems. At present, ULTRAMAGIC is holder of the two main approvals concerning design and production, the Design Organisation Approval (DOA) and the Production Organisation Approval (POA), respectively. In addition to this, ULTRAMAGIC is a certified Maintenance Centre with National Approval, under the responsibility of the National Authority, the Agencia Estatal de Seguridad Aérea, through the Oficina de Seguridad en Vuelo number 4. The recent entry into force of the European Regulation 2042/2003 in what regards to non Commercial Air Transport, which applies to balloons, has forced pilots and operators to either obtain the certification or subcontract the aircraft maintenance tasks and the continuing airworthiness management. In order to avoid falling behind competitors and willing to keep costumer trust by offering new services, ULTRAMAGIC have decided to become approved as a Part M Organisation, which will allow them to offer the services of aircraft maintenance under Subpart F, management of the continuing airworthiness under Subpart G and issuing and extending Airworthiness Certificates under Subpart I.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_vallribera_09_setup,
      author = {Carles Vallribera},
      title = {Setup of a Continuing Airworthiness Management Organization (CAMO)},
      school = {WAeronautica -- Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Barcelona -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Catalan, Confidential)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/12337}
      }
  
Raso, N. 2009 (Jun). Preliminary study of the acoustic impact of the fourth runway in Barcelona’s Airport. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. & García-Serrano, L. (in Spanish).
Keywords: Noise abatement procedures, INM, Barcelona El Prat airport
Abstract: Due to the actuality of the construction of a possible fourth runway in Prat’s Airport, with this essay we tried to obtain a study of the advantages or disadvantages that, for acoustic contamination, would bring the construction of the fourth runway. To do this, we have had to study the Airport generated noise with the actual runways in the year 2007 and in the year 2015, secondly the generated noise including the fourth runway in the sea in the year 2015, and then the results have been studied to, as a conclusion, mark the best acoustic option. It has been necessary to use a program that let us know the approximate noise produced by the operations in the airport depending on the configuration of the runways and on the volume of the operations. The program that has been used is the INM (Integrated Noise Model) that let us, by the introduction of parameters like the runways situation, the routes, etc..., obtain a model on a map of the noise curves produced by the introduced data. The data introduced has been in first term the operations that were done in Barcelona Airport in a type day during year 2007, in second term we have introduced the same data but previously adding them an increment for obtaining the operations in the year 2015 and lastly we have introduced the operations in the year 2015 but taking into account the fourth runway in the sea. To divide up this operations in the runways we have used the preferential west configuration, which for all the studied cases, the takeoffs and the landings have been done by the 25R, 25L and 25M (sea runway) runways. Lastly and with the noise maps calculated using the simulation program, we have arrived to the conclusion that the construction of the fourth runway in Barcelona Airport will bring a great acoustic improvement due to the decrease of noise that it will provide to the adjacent towns.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_raso_09_estudio,
      author = {Nadia Raso},
      title = {Preliminary study of the acoustic impact of the fourth runway in Barcelona’s Airport},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Jun},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Spanish)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/8226}
      }
  
Sanchez, M. 2008 (Nov). Modeling noise annoyance caused by air traffic using fuzzy logic. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X.
Keywords: Aircraft noise annoyance, fuzzy logic
Abstract: The main goal of this project is the study and modeling of the noise annoyance caused by air traffic by using the fuzzy logic theory. Like many other environmental problems, air traffic noise, continues to grow and has become a serious problem in many countries. Millions of people living for working around airport areas can suffer from noise exposure effects as for instance hearing loss, interference with communication, stress, sleep disturbance, psychological effects as well as a general reduction in quality of life and tranquillity. However, noise annoyance is a difficult issue to evaluate as it is open to subjective reactions. Fuzzy logic theory is the perfect tool to analyse and evaluate all that vague and imprecise concepts that contrary to many other concepts, like age, distance or time, can not be measured as easily. In this project, a fuzzy function has been developed to quantify the annoyance level that people living or working in areas near airports are suffering. The parameters that come into play in this feature are the noise level, time of day, the number of events per hour, and finally, if it is a residential or an industrial area. Finally, the results of the fuzzy system have been represented on graphics that show the levels of nuisance caused by aircraft noise in each of the situations according the variables of the fuzzy function.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_sanchez_08_modeling,
      author = {Míriam Sanchez},
      title = {Modeling noise annoyance caused by air traffic using fuzzy logic},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2008},
      month = {Nov},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/6030}
      }
  
Pérez, C. & Sintes, P. 2007 (Jul). Aerodynamics, stability and control computational analysis for UAVs. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. & Rojas, J.I.
Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle, stability and control, aerodynamic coefficients, CFD
Abstract: The aim of this Project is the aerodynamic study of an UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle). These types of aircrafts are commonly used in many countries to develop tasks such as surveillance, research or combat due to its autonomy of flight. An UAV can fly without a pilot onboard and contsequently it can realize tasks very dangerous with no risk. The UAVs used in this project are the Megastar and the Shadow, which belong to the EPSC and are used by the Icarus Group. The objective of this work has been the computation of the aerodynamic coefficients corresponding to two aircrafts in order to calibrate the equations of stability and control needed for the programming of their autopilot. To obtain these coefficients, two softwares have mainly been used: Fluent and Datcom. Fluent is a software based on computational fluid dynamics and Datcom is a program which calculates the aerodynamic coefficients of an specific aircraft. The necessity to use both of them relays in the confidence to obtain as much coefficients as possible and also in the validation of the results comparing the values obtained with both softwares. The measurements of the geometries and their modelling into a software of design have been the previous steps to the simulation of the aircrafts. At this point, they have been simulated in many situations such as diverse angles of attack to take the more realistic values as possibly. The results obtained show significant similarities between the two softwares in the basic aerodynamic coefficients. The aspect which they differ more is the critical angle of attack, but this could be because the differences in the way of introducing the parameters between the softwares. In this manner, the results showed that Fluent should be used more for calculate physical parameters such as velocity or pressure and for the basic coefficients (Cl and Cd), thanks to its more realistic calculations. In contrast, Datcom could be used as an approximation to know a lot of aerodynamic coefficients due to its fast calculations and to its approximate geometry inputs.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_perez_07_aerodynamics,
      author = {Carlos Pérez and Pol Sintes},
      title = {Aerodynamics, stability and control computational analysis for UAVs},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2007},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/4244}
      }
  
Betancourt, O. 2007 (Jun). Setup of the C152 flight simulator for the EPSC. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. (in Spanish).
Keywords: flight simulation, Cessna, Cockpit
Abstract: The motivation for this project originates from the initiative to create a flight simulator for the EPSC university. Based on the available resources in particular fuselage of a Cessna aeroplane donated by the Roussillon Aeroclub, initial work began to transform the cabin into a flight simulator. The viability of a flight simulator was studied in previous projects. The necessary information was begin the gathered aver various terms in odder to begin the construction stage of the simulator. This project applies all this information. Furthermore it implements the most important ports of the simulator: Development of the flight plane, Graphic interface and Projection platform. In the document studies can be found for the design construction and implementation of a flight panel and detailed information of its instruments. Installation and configuration of a control system in done through software for the flight equipment. The necessary criteria are used for the choice of a powerful graphic interface. Characteristics of the elements which from the projection platform and criteria for its projection are selected subjects such as the interaction and realism of the simulator are also included. The project concludes with an analysis of the results and gives examples of application of the flight simulator. Also included are short studies for posterior continuations of the project.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_betancourt_07_setup,
      author = {Osvaldo Betancourt},
      title = {Setup of the C152 flight simulator for the EPSC},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2007},
      month = {Jun},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Spanish)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/4206}
      }
  
González, C. & Montolio, J. 2007 (Jun). Implementation of a software for instrument flight procedures design. Final Degree Project: Pildo Labs -- Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Barcelona -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. & Soley, S. (Confidential).
Keywords: PANS-OPS, procedure design, RNAV, APV approaches
Abstract: This document presents the design and the development of a software called RAPIT (RNAV and APV Procedures Integration Tool), with the objective of making easy and to speed up the obstacle’s assessment task involved when designing instrumental navigation procedures. The program allows creating surfaces to identify obstacles, by means of some basic CAD tools, and it has an algorithm for the detection of the penetrating obstacles, taking into account natural and artificial ones. Moreover, the program is able to manage a database of obstacles, airports, waypoints, navaids, etc. The main goal of the program is the definition of RNAV-APV procedures, even though its flexibility allows the use into any type of conventional navigation procedure. RNAV procedures allow flying approaches and instrumental arrivals for the different airport operators when unfavourable meteorological conditions exist. Currently, instrumental operations are only possible in big airports equipped with expensive radionavigation systems. With the use of the GNSS system it could be defined RNAV procedures into secondary aerodromes which nowadays are basically operated in visual conditions. RAPIT has been implemented starting from a basic and open source code corresponding to a cartographical map visualizer. From this point, some tools and specific modules to resolve the differentneeds that are required in the design of a RNAV procedure, have been added. The cartographical Catalan data has been provided by the Catalan Cartographic Institute (ICC). The cartographical coordinates were in ED50 datum and using UTM projection. On the other hand, for aeronautical operations is mandatory working and publish all the coordinates in WGS84 reference system. For that reason, one of the most important parts of this project is focused into the coordinate’s transformation between both datums. For testing the program, in this project ithas been drawn the limitation obstacle’s surfaces (defined in the ICAO’s Annex 14) for Girona’s airport and the infringing obstacles have been identified. On the other hand, a whole RNAV-APV approach procedure for Igualada-Odena’s aerodrome (Anoia) is designed by using RAPIT.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_gonzalez_07_implementation,
      author = {Carlos González and Josep Montolio},
      title = {Implementation of a software for instrument flight procedures design},
      school = {Pildo Labs -- Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2007},
      month = {Jun},
      address = {Barcelona -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(Confidential)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/12464}
      }
  
Hernández, O. 2007 (Mar). Design and setup of a Design Organization Approval (DOA). Final Degree Project: WAeronautica -- Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Barcelona -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Álvarez, D. & Prats, X. (in Catalan, Confidential).
Keywords: Design Organisation Approval, European Aviation Safety Agency, balloons
Abstract: This document contains a description for the project of preparation and implantation of a Design Organisation Approval for ULTRAMAGIC developed in agreement with the company W AERONAUTICA Consultoria i Enginyeria S.L. ULTRAMAGIC is a Catalan company that designs and produces hot air balloons. Like all the companies that design, produce and maintain products aircraft, parts and appliances it must be approved in accordance to the European regulation issued by the European Aviation Safety Agency. This document establishes the minimum airworthiness and quality requirements that design and production organisation must comply. Currently, ULTRAMAGIC is holding an Alternative procedures Design Organisation Approval (ADOA). Although the ADOA allows ULTRAMAGIC to develop design activities, EASA is the responsible of all the tasks related to design verification and design certification. This dependence on EASA causes a delay in all design projects and consequently is affecting negatively the production rate. Due to the ADOA disadvantages, ULTRAMAGIC is trying to obtain a Design Organisation Approval (DOA) which will allow ULTRAMAGIC to develop the tasks of designing and certifying hot air balloons by itself. This will bear a great reduction of the time of delivery of the balloons, a considerable increase of the production, the possibility of opening new business lines as well as a greater degree of competitiveness. In order to give answer to the specific necessities of ULTRAMAGIC the project has been structured in different stages. The purpose of the first stages consists of making an analysis of the necessities of the client, for instance the suitable regulation and the adjustment of the resources of the client to the requirements of the regulation. The aim of the intermediate stages is define the necessary resources as well as to elaborate the manual, the operative processes and the Design Assurance System defining the workflow and the communications. The final stages consist of assuring that all the elaborated tasks comply with the regulation, developing the procedure of approval by the Aeronautical Authority, to train the personnel of the organisation and to implant the processes and procedures elaborated in a previous stage in ULTRAMAGIC. The result obtained after this project is a complete preparation of ULTRAMAGIC for the approval that will be made the following months of March and April of 2007. This project will be continued with different complementary optimizations that allow obtaining a greater efficiency of the organization as an automated management system of the processes and procedures associated to all of the applicable regulation.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_hernandez_07_design,
      author = {Oriol Hernández},
      title = {Design and setup of a Design Organization Approval (DOA)},
      school = {WAeronautica -- Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2007},
      month = {Mar},
      address = {Barcelona -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Catalan, Confidential)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/12073}
      }
  
Valiente, J.L. 2007 (Mar). Design of practical exercises for a Air Traffic Management course. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. (in Spanish).
Keywords: ATM, noise abatement, INM, capacity-demand, education
Abstract: In this project two different studies about air traffic management have been carried out. For both cases completely different scenes and geographic situations are considered. First exercise is a study of the acoustic impact due to the transit of aircrafts in the airport of Girona-Costa Brava. Of all the operations that are carried out in this airport, the selected ones are the departures of the runway 02. Taking as a basis real data of all flights occurred in March of 2006 and using the tool INM, the noise contour that the aircrafts leave on the zone has been computed. Special interest has been devoted to the populations nearby the airport. The second exercise is an airspace sectorization study of the UIR Barcelona. With real data coming from the 8 of May of 2004 the routes that aircraft cover in the UIR and the time that takes in crossing these assigned airways are computed. It has been supposed a constant and equal speed for all the aircrafts. With this, results of the occupation in each sector are obtained, from which the saturation degree that they arrive in each hour period can be obtained. From these two studies this project proposes two practical works for the subject Air Traffic Management of the Aeronautical Technical Engineering degree in the Escola Superior Tècnica of Castelldefels (EPSC). The first exercise consists basically of modifying the trajectories of the aircrafts by the introduction of the navigation system RNAV and comparing the results with the real case. The second practice is based on modifying the airspace sectorization given in the initial study and introducing the use of datalink, with the objective of optimizing the management of the airspace. With these changes in the new sectorization it is obtained a balance of workloads of the controllers of each sector and saturations of sectors are avoided. For both practices one of the possible solutions has been made, so a reference of the result is given in this project, although due to the freedom that is given in the wording of the practice it can be that each student obtains different results.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_valiente_07_realizacion,
      author = {José Luis Valiente},
      title = {Design of practical exercises for a Air Traffic Management course},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2007},
      month = {Mar},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Spanish)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/4051}
      }
  
Montlló, G. 2006 (Jul). Web interface development for a flight simulator. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. (in Catalan).
Keywords: Java J2EE, web application, flight simulation
Abstract: In this project a web application has been designed and developed with the use of Java and, most specifically, the J2EE platform. The resources this platform offers, along with some others, have been analyzed. Apart from programming, other tools have been used in order to create the graphic design of the web. The web application is a part of a flight simulator and it is used by the users to fulfill the administration tasks and those regarding the management of the server. This server is the center of the simulator and it completes all of the control, synchronization and management tasks of the simulator. The most noticeable and important distinctive point with common web applications is the fact that it is configurable by the server’s programmer/s by a XML file without previous web knowledge required. This characteristic makes it a peculiar web application and has added interest in its development. The uses this application offers are the authenticity and, above all, the execution of server functions. Another characteristic is that it allows one to change the application language without having to modify neither the code nor the web page.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_motllo_06_web,
      author = {Gerard Montlló},
      title = {Web interface development for a flight simulator},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2006},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Catalan)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/3754}
      }
  
Fajula, A. 2006 (Mar). Feasability study for a flight simulator dynamic platform. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. (in Catalan).
Keywords: flight simulation, Cessna, dynamic platform
Abstract: This work consist on a study of a dinamic plattform for a EPSC flight simulator. This platform has to make movements and necessary accelerations so that the sensation inside the flight cabin is be flying. The simulator is a Cessna 152 cabin located in the aeronautics laboratory in EPSC with a dinamic plattform that is studied in this work. In the work are analyzed the different systems from actuators to obtain the movement of the platform, how they are electrical, pneumatic and the hydraulic ones, seeing the advantages and disadvantages of each system and reaching the conclusion that the best system in this case is the hydraulic. Also are studied the habitual maneuvers that will make the simulator, they are turn and other maneuvers in the vertical plane seeing the load factors and the time that can be made the maneuver of real way based on the length of the actuators. From these movements, the physiology of the human body is studied to decide in each maneuver the movement that will make the simulator. After seeing this movements is decided that a platform with 3 hydraulic actuators will be sufficient. This plattform has movement in the vertical axis and inclination in both axes of the horitzontal plane (Pitch and Roll). Finally the resistant points of the cabin are studied in order to unite the platform.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_fajula_06_feasability,
      author = {Albert Fajula},
      title = {Feasability study for a flight simulator dynamic platform},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2006},
      month = {Mar},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Catalan)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/3825}
      }
  
García, J.L. 2006 (Jan). Feasability study on the operation of a new aircraft model for a regional airline. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. (in Spanish).
Keywords: aircraft operations, aircraft routes, flight planning
Abstract: In the present project we have carried out a study about the implementation of a new model aircraft into a regional airline. The main goal is to find the most suitable model of aircraft that we would allow the airline to respond regional aviation demand, at the same time exploiting the route Barcelona – Prague, making big profits for the company during shortmedium periods of time. For all this, we have done an objective analysis composed by a theorical side, in which we have refered to, other ways, particular regional aviation concept, main aircraft builders in the world or aircraft choice methods; as well as a practical one, in which we have developed questions as, operational costs of explotation of one route or a multicriteria matrix for the previous selection of the aircraft. In this way, we have tryed to simulate the same choice criteria that airlines take into account for the selection of the optimum aircraft that provide, at the same time, the maximum profits.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_garcia_06_feasability,
      author = {Jose Luís García},
      title = {Feasability study on the operation of a new aircraft model for a regional airline},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2006},
      month = {Jan},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Spanish)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/9709}
      }
  
Smaldoni, F. 2006 (Jan). Design and implementation of an airbus A320 flight management system for a flight simulator. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. (in Spanish).
Keywords: flight simulation, flight management systems, Airbus A320
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_smaldoni_06_design,
      author = {Franco Smaldoni},
      title = {Design and implementation of an airbus A320 flight management system for a flight simulator},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2006},
      month = {Jan},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Spanish)}
      }
  
Grasas, J. 2005 (Sep). Design of cartographic visualisation screens for an aircraft cockpit simulator. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Pastor, E. & Prats, X. (In Catalan).
Keywords:
Abstract: The cartographic screen inside an aircraft cockpit makes easy to the pilot a correct vision of the aerial traffic around, improves the security and the efficiency of the flight operations and allows the aircrafts to obtain positioning and routes more efficiently in remote and oceanic areas. The objective of this thesis is to design a low cost cartographic screen, to program a library that contains all the necessary structures for the subsequent programming and the study of the necessary hardware for its implementation. The design of the cartographic screen is based on the recommendations of the RTCA inc. about the Cockpit Display of Traffic Information. The conventional CDTI gets the necessary data for its performance of multiple surveillance systems such as ADS-B, TIS, TIS-B and TCAS. Taking into account the characteristics of the different sources, the system ADS-B has been chosen as the most suitable one to obtain surveillance data for the designed cartographic screen as this is the most extended and most used range system. ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast) is a data link application that transmits surveillance data through a transponder by means of a broadcast mode to users who have a receptor at 1090MHz. As for hardware, the system will consist of data emission/reception, processing and visualisation. The Emission/Reception will be obtained by means of a transponder Mode S ES 1090MHz as it is the system chosen in both Europe and USA. The processing and visualisation will be obtained through a PC Panel that integrates in a compacted and robust way a TFT screen and a high asset computer at a low price.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_grasas_05_design,
      author = {Joan Grasas},
      title = {Design of cartographic visualisation screens for an aircraft cockpit simulator},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Telecommunication and Aerospace Engineering (EETAC)},
      year = {2005},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(In Catalan)}
      }
  
Álvarez, V. 2005 (Jul). APV-RNAV procedures design for Igualada-Odena aerodrome. Final Degree Project: Pildo Labs -- Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Barcelona -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. & Soley, S. (Confidential).
Keywords: satellite navigation, EGNOS, RNAV, APV approaches
Abstract: This document exposes the procedures and results obtained for the design of an EGNOS based APV-RNAV procedure at Igualada-Ódena’s aerodrome. The main objective of the procedure is to allow cat A or B aircraft to execute APV approaches (approach type between a non precision and a precision approach in terms of required performances), in order that the aerodrome users are able to operate in it under adverse meteorological conditions. During the design it was necessary to carry out an obstacle study almost from the scratch since no previous material was available, which supposed spending a lots of time. This study included the analysis of digital cartography, as well as a field data campaign to collect the coordinates of those obstacles not included in the ortophotos. The results of this study were then introduced into a software program to calculate the OCA/H (Obstacle Clearance Altitude/Height) values. After that, using Autocad Map 2004, the procedure was completed, including the TAA (Terminal Area Approach) for the arrival segment. The obtained results show that the goal of defining an EGNOS based APVRNAV approach has been achieved. However, although the airfield characteristics allow the execution of an APV approach, the obstacle clearance height obtained for the final straight in approach is seen to be pretty high far from the expected operational minima defined for APV-SBAS approaches. Concretely, the obtained OCH is finally fixed at 658.6 meters height, thus establishing that the missed approach would commence at 11.5 km from the LTP (Landing Threshold Point). Hence, the pilot will be able to see the runway from this point only if the visibility is very good. It is expected that a kind of approach with part of the final approach segment disaligned with the runway axis, the so-called curved approaches, could improve the first OCH obtained for the Igualada-Odena aerodrome, while reducing the minima to the SBAS operational ones. This assessment is advanced as a future work from the first draft material related still under discussion at ICAO level.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_alvarez_05_apv-rnav,
      author = {Víctor Álvarez},
      title = {APV-RNAV procedures design for Igualada-Odena aerodrome},
      school = {Pildo Labs -- Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2005},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Barcelona -- Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(Confidential)}
      }
  
González, S. 2005 (Jul). Feasability study for an ADS-B surveillance environment in Igualada aerodrome. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. (in Spanish).
Keywords: aircraft surveillance, ADS-B, Igualada
Abstract: The main objectives of this project are the development of an application client/server and its own communications protocol to manage a flight simulator network, and the development of an application that generatesaeronautical meteorological information reports (metar). The client/server application has a flight planner module to check this meteorological information and other information and send standardized flight plans to the server. These two applications have the purpose to be used at the practical classes of the Technical Aeronautical Engineering, Aero Navigation Systems speciality degree, which is cursed at the Escola Politècnica Superior de Castelldefels. Finally it’s been made a study of the actual software we can find currently that works similar at described above. This study works as a reference to design and develop the main characteristics and functionalities of our own applications
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_gonzalez_05_feasability,
      author = {Sara González},
      title = {Feasability study for an ADS-B surveillance environment in Igualada aerodrome},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2005},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Spanish)}
      }
  
Catalán, M. 2005 (Jun). Design of a regional aviation airport. Final Degree Project: Inypsa -- Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): (Inypsa), J.L. & Prats, X. (in Catalan).
Keywords: airports, regional airport, Lleida
Abstract: In this project the design proces of the air side of the new Lleida-Alguaire airport is shown. The purpose of the project is to give an effective solution to the needs of a regional aviation airport from the aeronautic aspect. Every design decision are justified and has been taken according to the obligations and recomendations of the International Civil Aviation Organization from the airports point of view. The design priorities have been make the new airport a safe platform to operate, with a good efficency and flexibility. By this way the best results could be reached in the air navigation, occupancy time of the runway and economy aspects.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_catalan_05_design,
      author = {Marc Catalán},
      title = {Design of a regional aviation airport},
      school = {Inypsa -- Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2005},
      month = {Jun},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Catalan)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/9707}
      }
  
Salvador, L. 2005 (Jun). Flight characterization of a radio controlled airplane model. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. (in Spanish).
Keywords: aerodynamics, stability and control, UAV
Abstract: As a starting point we have a UAV to which we want to design an automatic flying system. For this purpose, this project focuses on the first part of this study which consists on the process of shaping of the plane setting aside the part of the algorithm control design and its implementation as a future matter to work on. The first step is to develop the cinematic and dynamic equations which rule the plane’s movement. The objective of this project is not just getting the exact equations of a plane, but developing a methodology to get that calculus. Taking as the starting point the fundamental equations of the Newtonian mechanics and going through serials of hypothesis and guesses, we come to a dynamic model of the plane behaviour around a balance point when flying. This equations’ set works on the basis of specific parameters dependent on the plane’s geometry and aerodynamics. The second part of the project focuses on the calculus of those parameters for a specific plane of aeromodelling. That calculus is based on the results of a program called Datcom which allows us to calculate several stability parameters from the geometric measures of the plane. And finally, the equations are represented completely in a state variable shape.
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_salvador_05_flight,
      author = {Lierni Salvador},
      title = {Flight characterization of a radio controlled airplane model},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2005},
      month = {Jun},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Spanish)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/9705}
      }
  
Lorente, I. 2005 (Mar). A flight planner and communication application for flight simulators. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. (in Catalan).
Keywords: flight planning, METAR, flight simulation
Abstract: The main objectives of this project are the development of an application client/server and its own communications protocol to manage a flight simulator network, and the development of an application that generates aeronautical meteorological information reports (metar). The client/server application has a flight planner module to check this meteorological information and other information and send standardized flight plans to the server. These two applications have the purpose to be used at the practical classes of the Technical Aeronautical Engineering, Aero Navigation Systems speciality degree, which is cursed at the Escola Politècnica Superior de Castelldefels. Finally it’s been made a study of the actual software we can find currently that works similar at described above. This study works as a reference to design and develop the main characteristics and functionalities of our own applications
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_lorente_05_,
      author = {Ivan Lorente},
      title = {A flight planner and communication application for flight simulators},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2005},
      month = {Mar},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Catalan)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/3777}
      }
  
Ramírez, A. 2004 (Sep). Preliminary design for an A320 flight simulator. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X.
Keywords: flight simulation, Airbus A320, Cessna
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_ramirez_04_preliminary,
      author = {Albert Ramírez},
      title = {Preliminary design for an A320 flight simulator},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2004},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2099.1/9706}
      }
  
Torres, M. 2004 (Sep). Implementation of a radio panel for a light aircraft flight simulator. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. (in Spanish).
Keywords: flight simulation, radio panel, electronics
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_torres_04_implementation,
      author = {Montserrat Torres},
      title = {Implementation of a radio panel for a light aircraft flight simulator},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2004},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Spanish)}
      }
  
Akhtar, S.A. 2004 (Feb). Design of hands-on activities for the Aerospace Technology course. Final Degree Project: Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC), Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain). Advisor(s): Prats, X. (in Catalan).
Keywords: teaching, flight simulation
BibTeX:
      @mastersthesis{Ms_akhtar_03_design,
      author = {Sajeel A. Akhtar},
      title = {Design of hands-on activities for the Aerospace Technology course},
      school = {Castelldefels School of Technology (EPSC)},
      year = {2004},
      month = {Feb},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)},
      type = {Final Degree Project},
      note = {(in Catalan)}
      }
  

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