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Peer reviewed Journal Papers and Book Chapters

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Nava-Gaxiola, C. & Barrado, C. 2016 (Jan). Performance Measures of the SESAR Southwest Functional Airspace Block. Journal of Air Transport Management. Vol. 50 pp. 21-29.
Keywords: functional airspace block; free route airspace; SESAR; airspace reconfiguration; ATM performance measurement
Abstract: To face the challenges of the increasing air traffic demand the ICAO proposed the Performance Based Approach (PBA) as the methodology to apply for the modernization of the Air Traffic Management (ATM). Improvements for enhancing the en route air traffic efficiency include more direct route options and flexible airspace structures. In Europe airspace structures are fragmented by State boundaries avoiding cross-border sector configurations. Functional Airspace Blocks (FAB) are operational instruments of SESAR to facilitate the implementation of the Essential Operational Changes. In the Southwest FAB the plan to introduce Free Route Airspace (FRA) across States is the main change foreseen. The Southwest FAB comprises Portuguese and Spanish airspaces and with the FRA there will be no longer discrete crossing points. The relevance of SW FAB is due to its geographical situation, being one of the most important interconnection nodes for the American transatlantic flights and the European northern-southern corridor. In the paper we provide some measures of the expected benefits of introducing the FRA in Southwest FAB. The aim of the measures is to be useful for the performance analysis of the Southwest FAB development and the FRA already started in May 2014.
BibTeX:
      @article{CesarNava-Gaxiola2016,
      author = {Cesar Nava-Gaxiola and Cristina Barrado},
      title = {Performance Measures of the SESAR Southwest Functional Airspace Block},
      journal = {Journal of Air Transport Management},
      year = {2016},
      month = {Jan},
      volume = {50},
      pages = {21-29},
      url = {http://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0969699715001155},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2015.09.003}
      }
  
Reyes, A., Barrado, C. & Guerrero-Ibañez, A. 2015. Communication Technologies to Design Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructures Applications. Latin American Applied Research. Vol. In Press (x) pp. xx-xx.
Keywords:
BibTeX:
      @article{reyes2015vanets,
      author = {Reyes, Angelica and Barrado, Cristina and Guerrero-Ibañez, Antonio},
      title = {Communication Technologies to Design Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructures Applications},
      journal = {Latin American Applied Research},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {In Press},
      number = {x},
      pages = {xx--xx},
      url = {http://www.laar.uns.edu.ar/accepted_papers.htm}
      }
  
Reyes, A., Pastor, E., Barrado, C. & Gasull, M. 2015. Monitoring Radiological Incidents Through an Opportunistic Network. Latin America Transactions, IEEE (Revista IEEE America Latina). Vol. 13 (1) pp. 54-61. IEEE,
Keywords:
BibTeX:
      @article{reyes2015monitoring,
      author = {Reyes, Angelica and Pastor, Enric and Barrado, Cristina and Gasull, Marti},
      title = {Monitoring Radiological Incidents Through an Opportunistic Network},
      journal = {Latin America Transactions, IEEE (Revista IEEE America Latina)},
      publisher = {IEEE},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {54--61},
      url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=7040628&filter%3DAND%28p_IS_Number%3A7040619%29#article-page-hdr},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TLA.2015.7040628}
      }
  
Vilardaga, S. & Prats, X. 2015 (Dec). Operating cost sensitivity to required time of arrival commands to ensure separation in optimal aircraft 4D trajectories. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies. Vol. 61 pp. 75-86.
Keywords: Air traffic management, Trajectory optimisation, Air traffic efficiency, Cost index, Trajectory based operations, Conflict resolution
Abstract: Trajectory optimisation has shown good potential to reduce environmental impact in aviation. However, a recurring problem is the loss in airspace capacity that fuel optimal procedures pose, usually overcome with speed, altitude or heading advisories that lead to more costly trajectories. This paper aims at the quantification in terms of fuel and time consumption of implementing suboptimal trajectories in a 4D trajectory context that use required times of arrival at specific navigation fixes. A case study is presented by simulating conflicting Airbus A320 departures from two major airports in Catalonia. It is shown how requiring an aircraft to arrive at a waypoint early or late leads to increased fuel burn. In addition, the efficiency of such methods to resolve air traffic conflicts is studied in terms of both fuel burn and resulting aircraft separations. Finally, various scenarios are studied reflecting various airline preferences with regards to cost and fuel burn, as well as different route and conflict geometries for a broader scope of study.
BibTeX:
      @article{vilardaga_15_operating,
      author = {Santi Vilardaga and Xavier Prats},
      title = {Operating cost sensitivity to required time of arrival commands to ensure separation in optimal aircraft 4D trajectories},
      journal = {Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies},
      year = {2015},
      month = {Dec},
      volume = {61},
      pages = {75-86},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0968090X15003630},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2015.10.014}
      }
  
Dalmau, R. & Prats, X. 2015 (Mar). Fuel and time savings by flying continuous cruise climbs: Estimating the benefit pools for maximum range operations. Transportation Research - Part D: Transport and Environment. Vol. 35 pp. 62-71.
Keywords: Continuous cruise climbs; Unrestricted flight; Fuel savings; Trajectory optimization
Abstract: This paper estimates the benefits, in terms of fuel and time, which continuous climb operations can save during the cruise phase of the flights, assuming maximum range operations. Based on previous works, a multiphase optimal control problem is solved by means of numerical optimization and using accurate aircraft performance data from the manufacturer. Optimal conventional trajectories (subject to current air traffic management practices and constraints) are computed and compared with ideal continuous operations only subject to aircraft performance constraints. Trip fuel and time for both concepts of operations are quantified for two aircraft types (a narrow-body and a wide-body airplane) and a representative set of different trip distances and landing masses. Results show that the continuous cruise phase can lead to fuel savings ranging from 0.5% to 2% for the Airbus A320, while for an Airbus A340 the dispersion is lower and savings lie in between 1% and 2%. Interestingly, trip time is also reduced between 1% and 5%.
BibTeX:
      @article{dalmau_15_fuel,
      author = {Ramon Dalmau and Xavier Prats},
      title = {Fuel and time savings by flying continuous cruise climbs: Estimating the benefit pools for maximum range operations},
      journal = {Transportation Research - Part D: Transport and Environment},
      year = {2015},
      month = {Mar},
      volume = {35},
      pages = {62-71},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2014.11.019}
      }
  
Manuel Angle Amaro, Darius Rudinskas, C.B. 2015 (March). Design of a flight management system to support four-dimensional trajectories. Aviation. Vol. 19 (1) pp. 58-65.
Keywords: FMS, 4D-trajectories; four dimensional navigation; control system
Abstract: This paper presents the design and simulation of the functions of a flight Management System (FMS) in order to follow four-dimensional trajectories automatically. This is achieved by controlling the aircraft’s airspeed, altitude, heading and vertical speed in order to arrive to the merging point in a specified time. The system receives data from the aircraft and computes new control parameters based on mathematical equations and algorithms of prediction trajectories. Additional features have been added to the FMS-4D, such as the capability of predicting the arrival time taking into account previous flight parameters and speed/altitude constrains. Finally, a testing phase was carried out using a flight simulator in order to obtain the performance and results of the designed system.
BibTeX:
      @article{amaro_2015_4DT-FMS,
      author = {Manuel Angle Amaro, Darius Rudinskas, Cristina Barrado},
      title = {Design of a flight management system to support four-dimensional trajectories},
      journal = {Aviation},
      year = {2015},
      month = {March},
      volume = {19},
      number = {1},
      pages = {58-65},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3846/16487788.2015.1015284}
      }
  
Rebolledo-Mendez, G., Reyes, A., Paszkowicz, S., Domingo, M.C. & Skrypchuk, L. 2014. Developing a body sensor network to detect emotions during driving. Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE Transactions on. Vol. 15 (4) pp. 1850-1854. IEEE,
Keywords:
BibTeX:
      @article{rebolledo2014developing,
      author = {Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro and Reyes, Angélica and Paszkowicz, Sebastian and Domingo, Mari Carmen and Skrypchuk, Lee},
      title = {Developing a body sensor network to detect emotions during driving},
      journal = {Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE Transactions on},
      publisher = {IEEE},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {15},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1850--1854}
      }
  
Salami, E., Barrado, C. & Pastor, E. 2014. UAV flight experiments applied to the remote sensing of vegetated areas. Remote Sensing. Vol. 6 (11) pp. 11051-11081. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute,
Keywords:
Abstract: The miniaturization of electronics, computers and sensors has created new opportunities for remote sensing applications. Despite the current restrictions on regulation, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with small thermal, laser or spectral sensors has emerged as a promising alternative for assisting modeling, mapping and monitoring applications in rangelands, forests and agricultural environments. This review provides an overview of recent research that has reported UAV flight experiments on the remote sensing of vegetated areas. To provide a differential trend to other reviews, this paper is not limited to crops and precision agriculture applications, but also includes forest and rangeland applications. This work follows a top-down categorization strategy and attempts to fill the gap between application requirements and the characteristics of selected tools, payloads and platforms. Furthermore, correlations between common requirements and the most frequently used solutions are highlighted.
BibTeX:
      @article{salami2014uav,
      author = {Salami, Esther and Barrado, Cristina and Pastor, Enric},
      title = {UAV flight experiments applied to the remote sensing of vegetated areas},
      journal = {Remote Sensing},
      publisher = {Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {6},
      number = {11},
      pages = {11051--11081}
      }
  
Delgado, L. & Prats, X. 2014 (Nov). Operating cost based cruise speed reduction for ground delay programs: Effect of scope length. Transportation Research - Part C: Emerging Technologies. Vol. 48 pp. 437-452.
Keywords: Ground delay program; speed reduction; ground delay program scope; delay savings; airborne delay
Abstract: Ground delay programs typically involve the delaying of aircraft thatare departing from origin airports within some set distance of a capacity constrained destination airport. Long haul flights are notdelayed in this way. A trade-off exists when fixing the distance parameter: increasing the ‘scope’ distributes delay among moreaircraft and may reduce airborne holding delay but could also result in unnecessary delay in the (frequently observed) case of early program cancellation. In order to overcome part of this drawback, a fuel based cruise speed reduction strategy aimed at realizing airborne delay, was suggested by the authors in previous publications. By flying slower, at a specific speed, aircraft that are airborne can recover part of their initially assigned delay without incurring extra fuel consumption if the ground delay program is canceled before planned. In this paper, the effect of the scope of the program is assessed when applying this strategy. A case study is presented by analyzing all the ground delay programs that took place at San Francisco, Newark Liberty and Chicago O’Hare International airports during one year. Results show that by the introduction of this technique it is possible to define larger scopes, partially reducing the amount of unrecovered delay.
BibTeX:
      @article{delgado_14_operating,
      author = {Luis Delgado and Xavier Prats},
      title = {Operating cost based cruise speed reduction for ground delay programs: Effect of scope length},
      journal = {Transportation Research - Part C: Emerging Technologies},
      year = {2014},
      month = {Nov},
      volume = {48},
      pages = {437-452},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2014.09.015}
      }
  
Royo, P., Perez-Batlle, M., Cuadrado, R. & Pastor, E. 2014 (July). Enabling Dynamic Parametric Scans for Unmanned Aircraft System Remote Sensing Missions. Journal of Aircraft. Vol. 51 (3) pp. 870-882.
Keywords: UAS, flight plan, Scan Pattern
BibTeX:
      @article{Royo_14_scan_pattern,
      author = {Pablo Royo and Marc Perez-Batlle and Raul Cuadrado and Enric Pastor},
      title = {Enabling Dynamic Parametric Scans for Unmanned Aircraft System Remote Sensing Missions},
      journal = {Journal of Aircraft},
      year = {2014},
      month = {July},
      volume = {51},
      number = {3},
      pages = {870-882},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.C032453}
      }
  
Delgado, L., Prats, X. & Banavar, S. 2013. Cruise Speed Reduction for Ground Delay Programs: A Case Study for San Francisco International Airport Arrivals. Transportation Research - Part C: Emerging Technologies. Vol. 36 pp. 83-96.
Keywords: Ground delay program; Speed reduction; Airborne delay; Delay recovery; Fuel consumption; K-means clustering
Abstract: Ground Delay Programs (GDP) are sometimes cancelled before their initial planned duration and for this reason aircraft are delayed when it is no longer needed. Recovering this delay usually leads to extra fuel consumption, since the aircraft will typically depart after having absorbed on ground their assigned delay and, therefore, they will need to cruise at more fuel consuming speeds. Past research has proposed speed reduction strategy aiming at splitting the GDP-assigned delay between ground and airborne delay, while using the same fuel as in nominal conditions. Being airborne earlier, an aircraft can speed up to nominal cruise speed and recover part of the GDP delay without incurring extra fuel consumption if the GDP is cancelled earlier than planned. In this paper, all GDP initiatives that occurred in San Francisco International Airport during 2006 are studied and characterised by a K-means algorithm into three different clusters. The centroids for these three clusters have been used to simulate three different GDPs at the airport by using a realistic set of inbound traffic and the Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET). The amount of delay that can be recovered using this cruise speed reduction technique, as a function of the GDP cancellation time, has been computed and compared with the delay recovered with the current concept of operations. Simulations have been conducted in calm wind situation and without considering a radius of exemption. Results indicate that when aircraft depart early and fly at the slower speed they can recover additional delays, compared to current operations where all delays are absorbed prior to take-off, in the event the GDP cancels early. There is a variability of extra delay recovered, being more significant, in relative terms, for those GDPs with a relatively low amount of demand exceeding the airport capacity.
BibTeX:
      @article{delgado_13_cruise,
      author = {Delgado, Luis and Prats, Xavier and Banavar, Sridhar},
      title = {Cruise Speed Reduction for Ground Delay Programs: A Case Study for San Francisco International Airport Arrivals},
      journal = {Transportation Research - Part C: Emerging Technologies},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {36},
      pages = {83-96},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2013.07.011}
      }
  
Reyes, A., Barrado, C., Lopez, M. & Excelente, C.B. 2013. Vehicle density in VANET Applications. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments. Vol. 6 (4) pp. 469-481.
Keywords:
Abstract: This paper analyzes how street-level traffic data affects routing in VANETs applications. First, we offer a general review about which protocols and techniques would fit best for VANET applications. We selected five main technical aspects (Transmission, Routing, Quality of Service, Security and Location) that we consider are differential aspects of VANETs from current Ad-Hoc Networks. Second, the paper analyzes how to configure each technical aspect according to the goal of a wide range of VANET applications. Third, we look at the routing aspect in depth, specifically focusing on how vehicle density affects routing, which protocols are the best option when there is a high/low density, etc. Finally, this research implements a sensor technology, based on an acoustics sensor that has been deployed around the city of Xalapa in México, to obtain reliable information on the real-time density of vehicles. The levels of density were discretized and the obtained data samples were used to feed a traffic simulator, which allowed us to obtain a global picture of the density of the central area of the city. According to the specific levels of vehicle density at a specific moment and place, VANET applications may adapt the routing protocol in a real-time way
BibTeX:
      @article{VANETs,
      author = {Angélca Reyes and Cristina Barrado and Marco Lopez and Cora B. Excelente},
      title = {Vehicle density in VANET Applications},
      journal = {Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {469-481},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/25057}
      }
  
Royo, P., Barrado, C. & Pastor, E. 2013 (Nov). ISIS+: A Software-in-the-Loop Unmanned Aircraft System Simulator for Nonsegregated Airspace. AIAA Journal of Aerospace Information Systems. Vol. 10 (11) pp. 530-544.
Keywords:
BibTeX:
      @article{royo_13_isis,
      author = {Pablo Royo and Cristina Barrado and Enric Pastor},
      title = {ISIS+: A Software-in-the-Loop Unmanned Aircraft System Simulator for Nonsegregated Airspace},
      journal = {AIAA Journal of Aerospace Information Systems},
      year = {2013},
      month = {Nov},
      volume = {10},
      number = {11},
      pages = {530-544},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.I010069}
      }
  
Royo, P., Barrado, C. & Pastor, E. 2013 (Nov). ISIS+: A Software-in-the-Loop Unmanned Aircraft System Simulator for Nonsegregated Airspace. Journal of Aerospace Information Systems. Vol. 10 pp. 530-543.
Keywords: simulator, atm-rpas
Abstract: Unmanned aircraft systems are currently being used primarily for military applications, but with the evolution of avionics technology, a huge market in civil applications is emerging. However, most civil applications require unmanned aircraft systems to access nonsegregated airspace. Current use limitations of nonsegregated airspace make it extremely difficult to extensively evaluate operational concepts and mission profiles. Using real flights to test the complete unmanned aircraft system mission infrastructure involves costs and risks. Therefore, simulators must be used prior to real flight campaigns to test and validate unmanned aircraft system components, and they must take into account all the actors involved in the nonsegregated airspace. This paper describes the development of a software-in-the-loop simulator called ISIS+ to evaluate the automated operations of unmanned aircraft systems in nonsegregated airspace and to test new software components of the unmanned aircraft systems with other avionics components. The ISIS+ simulator provides a realistic simulation environment in which the unmanned aircraft system software components can be developed under real air traffic scenarios while taking into account all the unmanned aircraft system’s peculiarities. The unmanned aircraft system is integrated with Early Demonstration and Simulation Platform, an air traffic simulation environment, in order to explore the unmanned aircraft system behavior, conflicting traffic, and air traffic controllers’ requests with the airspace actors. The integration is carried out using automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast messages and considers the unmanned aircraft system as an active actor in the networked environment to simulate future Single European Sky ATM Research and Next Generation Air Transportation System scenarios.
BibTeX:
      @article{royo_14_isis+,
      author = {Pablo Royo and Cristina Barrado and Enric Pastor},
      title = {ISIS+: A Software-in-the-Loop Unmanned Aircraft System Simulator for Nonsegregated Airspace},
      journal = {Journal of Aerospace Information Systems},
      year = {2013},
      month = {Nov},
      volume = {10},
      pages = {530-543},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.I010069}
      }
  
Salamí, E., Barrado, C., Pastor, E., Royo, P. & Santamaria, E. 2013 (Oct). Real-Time Data Processing for the Airborne Detection of Hot Spots. AIAA Journal of Aerospace Information Systems. Vol. 10 (10) pp. 444-451.
Keywords: Airborne Remote Sensing, Photogrammetry, Georeferencing, Real-time, Decision Support, Forest Fire
Abstract: This paper details three image processing algorithms to support tactical decisions using an Unmanned Aerial System in a post fire scenario: the Segmentation algorithm, that detects hot spots in thermal images, the Geolocation algorithm, that provides the Geographic coordinates of the hot spots, and the Fusion algorithm, that merges the thermal data with the visual information. A estimation of the magnitude of the hot spots is also formulated. The proposed system has been tested using a remotely piloted helicopter flying over controlled bonfires. The results, including geolocation accuracy, fusion images and execution time, demonstrate that the algorithms are suitable for real time processing on-board an aerial platform. The achieved accuracy using low cost sensors is satisfactory for this kind of missions.
BibTeX:
      @article{salami_13_real,
      author = {Esther Salamí and Cristina Barrado and Enric Pastor and Pablo Royo and Eduard Santamaria},
      title = {Real-Time Data Processing for the Airborne Detection of Hot Spots},
      journal = {AIAA Journal of Aerospace Information Systems},
      year = {2013},
      month = {Oct},
      volume = {10},
      number = {10},
      pages = {444-451},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.I010021}
      }
  
Barrado, C., Cuadrado, R., Delgado, L., Mellibovsky, F., Pastor, E., P�rez-Batlle, M., Prats, X., Rojas, J.I., Royo, P. & Valero, M. 2013 (Sep). Una experiencia de unificaci�n de asignaturas para desplegar PBL (y las quejas que origin�). ReVisi�n. Vol. 6 (2) pp. 50-59. (Invited article. In Spanish).
Keywords: Teaching, problem-based learning, computer science, air traffic management
Abstract: En este art�culo se describen los aspectos esenciales de una experiencia de unificaci�n de parejas de asignaturas con el objetivo de crear un escenario m�s adecuado para el despliegue de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos. Como gu�a para el repaso de esos aspectos esenciales se utiliza una carta que elaboraron los estudiantes de la primera edici�n para protestar por el funcionamiento de las asignaturas. El an�lisis de las quejas de los estudiantes puede ser de mucha utilidad para otros que se planeen retos similares
BibTeX:
      @article{Barrado2013,
      author = {Cristina Barrado and Ra�l Cuadrado and Luis Delgado and Fernando Mellibovsky and Enric Pastor and Marc P�rez-Batlle and Xavier Prats and Jose I. Rojas and Pablo Royo and Miguel Valero},
      title = {Una experiencia de unificaci�n de asignaturas para desplegar PBL (y las quejas que origin�)},
      journal = {ReVisi�n},
      year = {2013},
      month = {Sep},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {50-59},
      note = {(Invited article. In Spanish)},
      url = {http://upcommons.upc.edu/e-prints/handle/2117/20661}
      }
  
Delgado, L. & Prats, X. 2013 (Jun). Effect of wind on operating cost based cruise speed reduction for delay absorption. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems. Vol. 14 (2) pp. 918-927.
Keywords: air traffic management, speed reduction, air- borne delay, wind, fuel consumption.
Abstract: En route speed reduction can be used for air traffic flow management (ATFM), e.g., delaying aircraft while airborne or realizing metering at an arrival fix. In previous publications, the authors identified the flight conditions that maximize the airborne delay without incurring extra fuel consumption with respect to the nominal (not delayed) flight. In this paper, the effect of wind on this strategy is studied, and the sensitivity to wind forecast errors is also assessed. A case study done in Chicago O'Hare airport (ORD) is presented, showing that wind has a significant effect on the airborne delay that can be realized and that, in some cases, even tailwinds might lead to an increase in the maximum amount of airborne delay. The values of airborne delay are representative enough to suggest that this speed reduction technique might be useful in a real operational scenario. Moreover, the speed reduction strategy is more robust than nominal operations against fuel consumption in the presence of wind forecast uncertainties.
BibTeX:
      @article{delgado_13_effect2,
      author = {Luis Delgado and Xavier Prats},
      title = {Effect of wind on operating cost based cruise speed reduction for delay absorption},
      journal = {IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems},
      year = {2013},
      month = {Jun},
      volume = {14},
      number = {2},
      pages = {918-927},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TITS.2013.2246864}
      }
  
Barrado, C., Ramírez, J., Pérez-Batlle, M., Santamaria, E., Prats, X. & Pastor, E. 2013 (Jan). Remote Flight Inspection using Unmanned Aircraft. Journal of Aircraft. Vol. 50 (1) pp. 38-46.
Keywords: UAS applications; mission management; flight inspection; flight planning
Abstract: Aircraft instrument navigation is based on radio signal technology provided by ground navigation aids (navaids). The International Civil Aviation Organization specifies the required navaids availability, quality, accuracy, and integrity for ground installations on service, including the flight inspection operations. Flight inspection is the task of validating the radio signal emitted by navaids. This paper presents the architecture of a novel system for flight inspection based on the use of unmanned aircraft. The proposed architecture is operated remotely and has flight inspection capabilities by using radio signal sensors. It also has a precise positioning system, based on global navigation satellite system, and uses a data link with low bandwidth, long range, and redundancy. Except for congested airports, the flight inspection is done in segregated airspace. These segregated airspace inspection flights could be a catapult for seriously considering unmanned aircraft benefits in civil services. Unmanned aircraft are a ready technology waiting for legal approval to operate cooperatively with manned aircraft in regular airspace. The paper presents a simulation of the flight inspection of a navaid in Huesca, Spain. The simulation is a proof of concept of the proposed architecture.
BibTeX:
      @article{barrado_13_remote,
      author = {Cristina Barrado and Jorge Ramírez and Marc Pérez-Batlle and Eduard Santamaria and Xavier Prats and Enric Pastor},
      title = {Remote Flight Inspection using Unmanned Aircraft},
      journal = {Journal of Aircraft},
      year = {2013},
      month = {Jan},
      volume = {50},
      number = {1},
      pages = {38-46},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.C031450}
      }
  
Prats, X., Santamaria, E., Delgado, L., Trillo, N. & Pastor, E. 2013 (Jan-Feb). Enabling Leg-Based Guidance on Top of Waypoint-Based Autopilots for UAS. Aerospace Science and Technology. Vol. 24 (1) pp. 95-100.
Keywords: UAS, flight plan, RNAV
Abstract: This paper presents a methodology to extend the guidance functionalities of Commercial Off-The-Shelf autopilots currently available for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). Providing that most autopilots only support elemental waypoint-based guidance, this technique allows the aircraft to follow leg-based flight plans without needing to modify the internal control algorithms of the autopilot. It is discussed how to provide Direct to Fix, Track to Fix and Hold to Fix path terminators (along with Fly-Over and Fly-By waypoints) to basic autopilots able to natively execute only a limited set of legs. Preliminary results show the feasibility of the proposal with flight simulations that used a flexible and reconfigurable UAS architecture specifically designed to avoid dependencies with a single or particular autopilot solution.
BibTeX:
      @article{prats_13_enabling,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Eduard Santamaria and Luis Delgado and Noel Trillo and Enric Pastor},
      title = {Enabling Leg-Based Guidance on Top of Waypoint-Based Autopilots for UAS},
      journal = {Aerospace Science and Technology},
      year = {2013},
      month = {Jan-Feb},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1},
      pages = {95-100},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ast.2011.09.006}
      }
  
Ramírez, J., Salazar, D., Prats, X. & Barrado, C. 2013 (Jan). C3 in UAS as a Means for Secondary Navigation. Journal of Navigation. Vol. 66 (1) pp. 115-134.
Keywords: UAS; Relative Navigation; C3; Secondary Navigation Means
Abstract: Unmanned Air Systems (UAS) navigate using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), but GNSS vulnerability precludes its use as the only means of navigation and requires a secondary means of navigation. A differentiating characteristic of UAS is their periodic communications with the ground station. This paper analyses the adequacy of employing UAS Command, Control and Communications (C3) as a secondary means of navigation. With no additional infrastructure, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used to process C3 messages and to obtain the positions of the UAS. Navigation accuracy and integrity are calculated in a scenario with three UAS. The obtained results meet the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) requirements
BibTeX:
      @article{ramirez_13_c3,
      author = {Jorge Ramírez and Dagoberto Salazar and Xavier Prats and Cristina Barrado},
      title = {C3 in UAS as a Means for Secondary Navigation},
      journal = {Journal of Navigation},
      year = {2013},
      month = {Jan},
      volume = {66},
      number = {1},
      pages = {115-134},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0373463312000392}
      }
  
Domingo, M.C. & Reyes, A. 2012. A clean slate architecture design for VANETs. Wireless Personal Communications. Vol. 67 (2) pp. 315-333. Springer,
Keywords:
BibTeX:
      @article{domingo2012clean,
      author = {Domingo, Mari Carmen and Reyes, Angélica},
      title = {A clean slate architecture design for VANETs},
      journal = {Wireless Personal Communications},
      publisher = {Springer},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {67},
      number = {2},
      pages = {315--333},
      url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11277-011-0380-x#page-1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11277-011-0380-x}
      }
  
Reyes, A. 2012. Redes móviles en entornos inteligentes. Obra digital: revista de comunicación. (2) pp. 57-62. Universitat de Vic,
Keywords:
BibTeX:
      @article{munoz2012redes,
      author = {Angélca Reyes},
      title = {Redes móviles en entornos inteligentes},
      journal = {Obra digital: revista de comunicación},
      publisher = {Universitat de Vic},
      year = {2012},
      number = {2},
      pages = {57--62},
      url = {http://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/4680436.pdf}
      }
  
Mitchell, D., Ekstrand, H., Prats, X. & Grönstedt, T. 2012 (Dec). An environmental assessment of air traffic speed constraints in the departure phase of flight: A case study at Gothenburg Landvetter Airport, Sweden. Transportation Research - Part D: Transport and Environment. Vol. 17 (8) pp. 610-618.
Keywords: Aircraft departure procedures; Aircraft CO2 emissions; Noise abatement;Speed constraints
Abstract: This paper considers the environmental effects of air traffic management speed constraints during the departure phase of flight. We present a CO2 versus noise trade-off study that compares aircraft departure procedures subject to speed constraints with a free speed sce- nario. A departure route at Gothenburg Landvetter Airport in Sweden is used as a case study and the analysis is based on airline flight recorded data extracted from the Airbus A321 aircraft. Results suggest that CO2 emissions could be reduced by 180 kg per flight if all departure speed constraints were removed at a cost of increased noise exposurebelow 70 dB(A).
BibTeX:
      @article{mitchell_12_environmental,
      author = {Deborah Mitchell and Henrik Ekstrand and Xavier Prats and Tomas Grönstedt},
      title = {An environmental assessment of air traffic speed constraints in the departure phase of flight: A case study at Gothenburg Landvetter Airport, Sweden},
      journal = {Transportation Research - Part D: Transport and Environment},
      year = {2012},
      month = {Dec},
      volume = {17},
      number = {8},
      pages = {610-618},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2012.07.006}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Royo, P., Santamaria, E., Prats, X. & Barrado, C. 2012 (Dec). In-Flight Contingency Management for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Journal of aerospace computing, information, and communication. Vol. 9 (4) pp. 144-160.
Keywords: Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), Flight plan management, contingencies
Abstract: Contingency analysis and reaction is a critical task that needs to be carried out by every aircraft to guarantee its safe operation. Managing emergencies in unmanned aircraft systems is a complex problem due to the automated nature of the vehicle and the potential lack of situational awareness that the pilot may face. It is well-known from the short history of unmanned aircraft systems accidents that many of them are directly attributable to pilot errors when trying to manage an unexpected contingency. Additionally, the lost-link contingency adds a new level of complexity unique to unmanned aircraft systems, which implies that some level of autonomous contingency operation will be required. In this work, we introduce a structured approach to support contingency reactions in unmanned aircraft systems. Our objective is to classify the contingency sources and, up to a certain point, abstract their impact on the unmanned aircraft systems operation. Depending on the level of severity, the contingency reaction may range from changing or canceling mission objectives to canceling the flight itself. In this way, the response to the contingency can be selected from a predefined catalog of reactions offered to the pilot or even executed autonomously, depending on the remaining flight capabilities of the unmanned aircraft systems.
BibTeX:
      @article{pastor_12_in-flight,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Pablo Royo and Eduard Santamaria and Xavier Prats and Cristina Barrado},
      title = {In-Flight Contingency Management for Unmanned Aircraft Systems},
      journal = {Journal of aerospace computing, information, and communication},
      year = {2012},
      month = {Dec},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {144-160},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.55109}
      }
  
Santamaria, E., Barrado, C., Pastor, E., Royo, P. & Salamí, E. 2012 (Dec). Reconfigurable automated behavior for UAS applications. Aerospace Science and Technology. Vol. 23 (1) pp. 372–386.
Keywords: Unmanned aircraft systems; Flight plan management; Mission management; Statecharts
Abstract: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have great potential to be used in a wide variety of applications, such as environmental applications, emergency situations and surveillance tasks, among others. However, most current UAS solutions, if not remotely piloted, rely on waypoint based flight control systems for their navigation and are unable to coordinate the aircraft flight with payload operation. We believe that increased automation, together with reconfiguration capabilities and cost-effectiveness, are key requirements for UAS to be successful in a commercial domain. The resulting platform should be affordable and able to operate in different application scenarios with reduced development effort and human intervention. In this paper, an architecture for providing UAS platforms with reconfigurable automated behavior is presented. The desired automation and reconfiguration capabilities are built upon the core sub-systems in that architecture: the Flight Plan Manager and the Mission Manager. Both systems are part of a wider set of embarked services that manage UAS operations during the mission. The Flight Plan Manager and the Mission Manager are respectively responsible for governing the UAS flight and orchestrating operation of other services on-board the UAS. There are two distinct features of the system: firstly, UAS behavior is not hard-coded into its software components, but described using specification formalisms; secondly, the UAS flight path is described by means of an XML based language specifically designed for this purpose. With this approach, flight and payload behavior are described in separate documents that complement each other. Prototype implementations of these services have been implemented and used to validate the proposed specification and execution methods with an application example devoted to the monitoring of wildfires.
BibTeX:
      @article{santamaria_12_reconfigurable,
      author = {Eduard Santamaria and Cristina Barrado and Enric Pastor and Pablo Royo and Esther Salamí},
      title = {Reconfigurable automated behavior for UAS applications},
      journal = {Aerospace Science and Technology},
      year = {2012},
      month = {Dec},
      volume = {23},
      number = {1},
      pages = {372–386},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ast.2011.09.005}
      }
  
Santamaria, E., Pastor, E., Barrado, C., Prats, X., Royo, P. & Pérez-Batlle, M. 2012 (July). Flight Plan Specification and Management for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems. Vol. 67 (2) pp. 155-181.
Keywords: Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), Flight plan specification, Flight plan management
Abstract: This paper presents a new concept for specifying Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flight operations that aims at improving the waypoint based approach, found in most autopilot systems, by providing higher level fligh plan specification primitives. The proposed method borrows the leg and path terminator concepts used in Area Navigation1 (RNAV). Several RNAV leg types are adopted and extended with new ones for a better adaptation to UAS requirements. Extensions include the addition of control constructs that enable repetitive and conditional behavior, and also parametric legs that can be used to generate complex paths from a reduced number of parameters. The paper also covers the design and implementation of a software component that manages execution of the flight plan. To take advantage of current off-the-shelf flight control systems the constructs included in the flight plan are translated to waypoint navigation commands. In this way, the advanced capabilities provided by the flight plan specification language are implemented as a new layer on top of existing technologies. The benefits and the feasibility of the proposed approach for UAS flight plan management are demonstrated by means of a simulated mission that performs the flight inspection of Radio Navigation Aids.
BibTeX:
      @article{santamaria_12_flight,
      author = {Eduard Santamaria and Enric Pastor and Cristina Barrado and Xavier Prats and Pablo Royo and Marc Pérez-Batlle},
      title = {Flight Plan Specification and Management for Unmanned Aircraft Systems},
      journal = {Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems},
      year = {2012},
      month = {July},
      volume = {67},
      number = {2},
      pages = {155-181},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10846-011-9648-3}
      }
  
Prats, X., Delgado, L., Ramírez, J., Royo, P. & Pastor, E. 2012 (May-Jun). Requirements, Issues, and Challenges for Sense and Avoid in Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Journal of Aircraft. Vol. 49 (3) pp. 677-687.
Keywords: UAS, Sense and Avoid, regulations, requirements
Abstract: The sense and avoid capability is one of the greatest challenges that has to be addressed to safely integrate unmanned aircraft systems into civil and nonsegregated airspace. This paper gives a review of existing regulations, recommended practices, and standards in sense and avoid for unmanned aircraft systems. Gaps and issues are identified, as are the different factors that are likely to affect actual sense and avoid requirements. It is found that the operational environment (flight altitude, meteorological conditions, and class of airspace) plays an important role when determining the type of flying hazards that the unmanned aircraft system might encounter. In addition, the automation level and the data-link architecture of the unmanned aircraft system are key factors that will definitely determine the sense and avoid system requirements. Tactical unmanned aircraft, performing similar missions to general aviation, are found to be the most challenging systems from an sense and avoid point of view, and further research and development efforts are still needed before their seamless integration into nonsegregated airspace.
BibTeX:
      @article{prats_12_requirements,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Luis Delgado and Jorge Ramírez and Pablo Royo and Enric Pastor},
      title = {Requirements, Issues, and Challenges for Sense and Avoid in Unmanned Aircraft Systems},
      journal = {Journal of Aircraft},
      year = {2012},
      month = {May-Jun},
      volume = {49},
      number = {3},
      pages = {677-687},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.58744}
      }
  
Prats, X., Ramírez, J., Delgado, L. & Royo, P. 2012 (Apr). Regulations and Requirements. In Sense and avoid in UAS: Research and applications. Angelov, P. (Ed.) Chap. 4. pp. 87-117. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK.
Keywords: UAS, Sense and Avoid, see and avoid, regulations, requirements, standards, human factors
Abstract: This chapter is devoted to review existing regulations, recommended practices and standards in Sense and Avoid (S&A) for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Gaps an issues are identified while different factors that are likely to affect actual S&A requirements are also highlighted. It is shown how the environment of operations (flight altitude, meteorological conditions and class of airspace) plays an important role when determining the type of flying hazards that the UAS might encounter. Besides that, the automation level and the data-link architecture of the UAS are also key factors that will definitely determine the S&A system requirements.
BibTeX:
      @incollection{prats_12_regulations,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Jorge Ramírez and Luis Delgado and Pablo Royo},
      editor = {Plamen Angelov},
      title = {Regulations and Requirements},
      booktitle = {Sense and avoid in UAS: Research and applications},
      publisher = {John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
      series = {Aerospace Series},
      year = {2012},
      month = {Apr},
      pages = {87-117},
      edition = {First},
      address = {West Sussex, UK},
      url = {http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470979755.html}
      }
  
Royo, P., Santamaria, E., Lema, J.M. & Pastor, E. 2012 (Apr). Integration of SAA Capabilities into a UAS Distributed Architecture for Civil Applications. In Sense and avoid in UAS: Research and applications. Angelov, P. (Ed.) Chap. 3. pp. 55-84. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK.
Keywords: UAS architecture, Sense and Avoid, non-segregated airspace integration
Abstract: Nowadays, there is a strong focus on providing technical solutions to the Sense and Avoid (SAA) problem. But, for these solutions to be fully effective, they need to be integrated into an architecture that takes into account the UAS flight and mission as a whole. Also, SAA concept goes beyond Self Separation and Collision Avoidance making standardized and predictable procedures a complementary safety layer. This chapter presents the integration of SAA capabilities in a distributed architecture for UAS civil applications and predictable procedures to integrate the UAS in non-segregated airspace. Special attention is paid to the “awareness” services definition, responsibilities and interactions with other services of the architecture.
BibTeX:
      @incollection{royo_12_integration,
      author = {Pablo Royo and Eduard Santamaria and Juan Manuel Lema and Enric Pastor},
      editor = {Plamen Angelov},
      title = {Integration of SAA Capabilities into a UAS Distributed Architecture for Civil Applications},
      booktitle = {Sense and avoid in UAS: Research and applications},
      publisher = {John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
      series = {Aerospace Series},
      year = {2012},
      month = {Apr},
      pages = {55-84},
      edition = {First},
      address = {West Sussex, UK},
      url = {http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470979755.html}
      }
  
Delgado, L. & Prats, X. 2012 (Jan-Feb). En Route Speed Reduction Concept for Absorbing Air Traffic Flow Management Delays. Journal of Aircraft. Vol. 49 (1) pp. 214-224.
Keywords: Air Traffic Management (ATM), Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM), speed adjustments
Abstract: This paper proposes an en-route speed reduction to complement current ground delay practices in Air Traffic Flow Management. Given a nominal cruise speed, there exists a bounded range of speeds that allow aircraft to fly slower with the same or lower fuel consumption than the nominal flight. Therefore, flight times are increased and delay can be partially performed in the air, at no extra fuel cost for the operator. This concept has been analyzed in an initial feasibility study, computing the maximum amount of delay that can be performed in the air in some representative flights. The impact on fuel consumption has been analyzed and two scenarios are proposed: the flight fuel remains the same as in the nominal flight, and some extra fuel allowance is permitted in order to face uncertainties. Results show significant values of airborne delay that may be useful in many situations, with the exception of short hauls where airborne delay may be too short. If cruise altitude is changed, the amount of airborne delay increases, since changes in cruise speed modify the optimal flight altitudes. From the analyzed flights, a linear dependency is found relating the airborne delay with the amount of extra fuel allowance.
BibTeX:
      @article{delgado_12_en-route,
      author = {Luis Delgado and Xavier Prats},
      title = {En Route Speed Reduction Concept for Absorbing Air Traffic Flow Management Delays},
      journal = {Journal of Aircraft},
      year = {2012},
      month = {Jan-Feb},
      volume = {49},
      number = {1},
      pages = {214-224},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.C031484}
      }
  
Guerrero-Ibáñez, A., Contreras-Castillo, J., Barba, A. & Reyes, A. 2011. A QoS-based dynamic pricing approach for services provisioning in heterogeneous wireless access networks. Pervasive and Mobile Computing. Vol. 7 (5) pp. 569 - 583. Elsevier,
Keywords:
BibTeX:
      @article{guerrero2011qos,
      author = {Guerrero-Ibáñez, Antonio and Contreras-Castillo, Juan and Barba, Antoni and Reyes, Angélica},
      title = {A QoS-based dynamic pricing approach for services provisioning in heterogeneous wireless access networks},
      journal = {Pervasive and Mobile Computing},
      publisher = {Elsevier},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {7},
      number = {5},
      pages = {569 - 583},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1574119210001148},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmcj.2010.10.003}
      }
  
Royo, P., Pastor, E., Barrado, C., Santamaria, E., Lopez, J., Prats, X. & Lema, J.M. 2011 (Aug). Autopilot Abstraction and Standardization for Seamless Integration of Unmanned Aircraft System Applications. Journal of aerospace computing, information, and communication. Vol. 8 (7) pp. 197-223.
Keywords: Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS), autopilot, architecture, abstraction layer, virtual autopilot system
Abstract: Nowadays many autopilot manufacturers are available in the commercial market for fixed wing small/mini Unmanned Aircraft System. Several autopilot configurations exist with a wide variety of selected sensors, sizes, control algorithms, and operational capabilities. However, selecting the right autopilot to be integrated in a given Unmanned Aircraft System is a complex task because none of them are mutually compatible. Moving from one autopilot to another may imply redesigning from scratch all the remaining avionics in the Unmanned Aircraft System. This paper presents theVirtualAutopilot System to facilitate exploitation of data obtained from the autopilot to be used by other applications on board. At the same time, it provides a hardware-independent interface that isolates payload and mission components from the autopilot specificities, thus eliminating dependencies on a particular autopilot solution. This subsystem is integrated into an Unmanned Aircraft System mission-oriented architecture called Unmanned Aircraft System Service Abstraction Layer, which promotes the development of automated concepts of operation keeping the UnmannedAircraft System pilot fully under control. The VAS and its surrounding architecture have been implemented for a variety of autopilots, ranging from the commercial AP04 from UAV NAVIGATION, to the Paparazzi autopilot and even autopilots for ground-based vehicles. In all cases the selected Virtual Autopilot System interface was maintained, overall capabilities increased due to the flight-plan and mission-oriented perspective offered by the surrounding architecture, and development times exponentially reduced as the Virtual Autopilot System design is consolidated. This wealth of experimentation demonstrates that employing a standardized interface facilitates the integration of newAPs, but at the same time capabilities are not only maintained but dramatically increased by developing flight-management systems on top of the Virtual Autopilot System standard interface.
BibTeX:
      @article{royo_11_autopilot,
      author = {Pablo Royo and Enric Pastor and Cristina Barrado and Eduard Santamaria and Juan Lopez and Xavier Prats and Juan Manuel Lema},
      title = {Autopilot Abstraction and Standardization for Seamless Integration of Unmanned Aircraft System Applications},
      journal = {Journal of aerospace computing, information, and communication},
      year = {2011},
      month = {Aug},
      volume = {8},
      number = {7},
      pages = {197-223},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.52672}
      }
  
Prats, X., Delgado, L., Royo, P., Perez-Batlle, M. & Pastor, E. 2011 (Jul-Aug). Departure and approach procedures for unmanned aircraft systems in a visual-flight-rule environment. Journal of Aircraft. Vol. 48 (4) pp. 1280-1290.
Keywords: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), UAV, approach and departure operations, IFR, VFR
Abstract: This paper assesses the departure and approach operations of unmanned aircraft systems in one of the most challenging scenarios: flying under visual flight rules. Inspired by some existing procedures for (manned) general aviation, some automatic and predefined procedures for unmanned aircraft systems are proposed. Hence, standardized paths to specific waypoints close to the airport are defined for departure operations, just before starting the navigation phase. Conversely, and for the approach maneuvers, a first integration into a holding pattern near the landing runway (ideally, above it) is foreseen, followed by a standard visual-flight-rule airfield traffic pattern. This paper discuses the advantages of these operations, which aim to minimize possible conflicts with other existing aircraft while reducing the pilot-in-command workload. Finally, some preliminary simulations are shown in which these procedures have been successfully tested with simulated surrounding traffic.
BibTeX:
      @article{prats_11_departure,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Luis Delgado and Pablo Royo and Marc Perez-Batlle and Enric Pastor},
      title = {Departure and approach procedures for unmanned aircraft systems in a visual-flight-rule environment},
      journal = {Journal of Aircraft},
      year = {2011},
      month = {Jul-Aug},
      volume = {48},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1280-1290},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.C031264}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Barrado, C., Royo, P., Santamaria, E., López, J. & Salamí, E. 2011 (Apr). Architecture for a helicopter-based unmanned aerial systems wildfire surveillance system. Geocarto International. Vol. 26 (2) pp. 113-131.
Keywords: wildfire monitoring; unmanned aerial vehicles
Abstract: Forest fires are an important problem for many countries. The economical loss is the most visible impact in the short term. The ecological damage and the impact on the wild life diversity and climate change are the most important factors in the long term. Up to now, satellites like NASA’s MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) system have been the primary source for strategic large area thermal imaging. Tactical monitoring has been until recently reduced to observation from the ground or from some dedicated aerial resource like command and control helicopters. However, little technological support has been available to those in charge of these monitoring tasks. An unmanned aerial systems (UAS) platform capable of overflying the area of a forest fire and with capacity of operating from non-prepared terrains would be an extremely valuable information gathering asset in several well-defined circumstances: surveillance during day and specially night, and early morning or late afternoon monitoring of post-fire hot-spots during the following days of the extinction. This work introduces the Sky-Eye system, a helicopter-based UAS platform that together with its hardware/software architecture is designed to facilitate the development of wildfire remote sensing applications. The Sky-Eye UAS will improve the overall awareness by providing tactical support to wildfire monitoring and control of ground squads. Sky-Eye employs existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology that can be immediately deployed on the field on-board medium-sized UAS helicopters at a reasonable cost. Sky-Eye is built on top of a user-parameterizable architecture called USAL (UAS Service Abstraction Layer). This architecture defines a collection of standard services and their interrelations as a basic starting point for further development. Functionalities like enhanced flight-plans, a mission control engine, data storage, communications management, etc. are offered.
BibTeX:
      @article{pastor_11_architecture,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Cristina Barrado and Pablo Royo and Eduard Santamaria and Juan López and Esther Salamí},
      title = {Architecture for a helicopter-based unmanned aerial systems wildfire surveillance system},
      journal = {Geocarto International},
      year = {2011},
      month = {Apr},
      volume = {26},
      number = {2},
      pages = {113-131},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10106049.2010.531769}
      }
  
Prats, X., Puig, V. & Quevedo, J. 2011 (Jan-Feb). Equitable aircraft noise abatement departure procedures. Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics. Vol. 34 (1) pp. 192-203.
Keywords: Aircraft noise abatement, aircraft trajectory optimization, multi-objective optimization
Abstract: This paper deals with the optimization of aircraft noise-abatement departure procedures. A multicriteria optimization strategy is presented, where the fairness of the optimal trajectories is assessed vis-à-vis the different noise-sensitive locations around the airport of study. This equitable optimization is formulated as the minimization of the maximum noise-annoyance deviation regarding all considered locations. This strategy is complemented with an iterative lexicographic optimization algorithm which, in turn, guarantees the Pareto efficiency condition of the final solution. Aircraft operating costs are also considered by neglecting the marginal benefits of noise reduction below a certain threshold value. An application example is shown (as an illustrative case) based on a departure of runway 02 at Girona airport in Catalonia, Spain. The results show the feasibility of this technique, which is intended to be used by procedure designers or airport authorities.
BibTeX:
      @article{prats_11_equitable,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Vicenç Puig and Joseba Quevedo},
      title = {Equitable aircraft noise abatement departure procedures},
      journal = {Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics},
      year = {2011},
      month = {Jan-Feb},
      volume = {34},
      number = {1},
      pages = {192-203},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.49530}
      }
  
Prats, X., Puig, V. & Quevedo, J. 2011 (Jan). A multi-objective optimization strategy for designing aircraft noise abatement procedures. Case study at Girona airport. Transportation Research - Part D: Transport and Environment. Vol. 16 (1) pp. 31-41.
Keywords: Aircraft noise abatement, aircraft trajectory optimization, multi-objective optimization
Abstract: The optimization of aircraft noise abatement procedures involves several conflicting factors, including location specific noise sensitivity and aircraft operating costs. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization strategy that employs goal, lexicographic-egalitarian and hierarchical optimization techniques. The presented methodology aims at better assessing the design of site-specific noise abatement procedures that take into account the actual populated areas, their type and distribution, the hour of the day where the trajectory is supposed to be flown and the aircraft type. An illustrative example is given with the design of the East departures at Girona airport, Catalonia. Results point out how the noise annoyance impact of current operational procedures can be significantly reduced by the optimized trajectories and show, as well, an important dependency on the typeof aircraft and the hour of the day.
BibTeX:
      @article{prats_11_multi-objective,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Vicenç Puig and Joseba Quevedo},
      title = {A multi-objective optimization strategy for designing aircraft noise abatement procedures. Case study at Girona airport},
      journal = {Transportation Research - Part D: Transport and Environment},
      year = {2011},
      month = {Jan},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {31-41},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2010.07.007}
      }
  
Rojas, J.I., Prats, X., Montlaur, A., Valero-Garc�a, M. & Garcia-Berro, E. 2010. Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning for Engineering Curriculum. In Cases on Technological Adaptability & Transnational Learning. Mukerji, S. & Tripathi, P. (Ed.) Chap. 17. pp. 333-359. IGI Global,
Keywords: teaching, problem-based Learning, rocketry, tansversal skills
Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to describe the process by which an initially limited-range practical experience, within the frame of a given subject in an aerospace engineering degree, might be expanded to become the mother-subject itself. Particularly, the practical experience is a Model Rocket Workshop (MRW), where students design, simulate, build, test and launch a small model rocket. The workshop is a Problem Based Learning (PBL) experience that covers a wide spectrum of educational aspects, ranging from theoretical disciplines, such as fluid dynamics and rocket dynamics, to topics more related to experimental work and hardware utilization like the certification of the rockets, as well as the rocket altitude measurements. Students get rapidly involved in the project, and acquire several practical and transversal abilities, while developing a solid knowledge of the physics underlying aerospace engineering. The case study shows some problems and improvements, academic results and lessons learned from the PBL approach. Finally, a series of new ideas related to MRW and the subject it belongs to are presented. The objective is to expand the MRW so that it embraces the totality of the activities that constitute this mother-subject. As a consequence, the former would then become a new subject entirely based on PBL. The strategy aims at enabling an optimum transition from conventional learning to PBL.
BibTeX:
      @incollection{rojas_10_effectiveness,
      author = {Jose Ignacio Rojas and Xavier Prats and Adeline Montlaur and Miguel Valero-Garc�a and Enrique Garcia-Berro},
      editor = {Siran Mukerji and Purnendu Tripathi},
      title = {Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning for Engineering Curriculum},
      booktitle = {Cases on Technological Adaptability & Transnational Learning},
      publisher = {IGI Global},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {333-359},
      url = {http://www.igi-global.com/bookstore/Chapter.aspx?TitleId=42440},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-61520-779-4.ch017}
      }
  
Prats, X., Puig, V., Quevedo, J. & Nejjari, F. 2010 (Dec). Multi-objective optimisation for aircraft departure trajectories minimising noise annoyance. Transportation Research - Part C: Emerging Technologies. Vol. 18 (6) pp. 975-989.
Keywords: Aircraft noise abatement, aircraft trajectory optimization, multi-objective optimization, fuzzy logic
Abstract: This paper presents a strategy for designing noise abatement procedures aimed at reducing the global annoyance perceived by the population living around the airports. A non-linear multi-objective optimal control problem is implemented and numerically solved obtaining minimal annoyance trajectories. Annoyance criteria are treated as non-linear functions that can be obtained by using fuzzy logic modelling techniques. Here, a basic implementation is shown where the annoyance is expressed in function of the maximum perceived noise level, the period of the day when the trajectory takes place and the type of area over-flown.Then, lexicographic optimisation techniques are used to deal with the multi-criteria nature of the problem. Finally, an illustrative example is given concerning a hypothetical scenario with five different noise sensitive locations and where different optimal trajectories are obtained fordifferent hours of the day.
BibTeX:
      @article{prats_10_multi-objective,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Vicenç Puig and Joseba Quevedo and Fatiha Nejjari},
      title = {Multi-objective optimisation for aircraft departure trajectories minimising noise annoyance},
      journal = {Transportation Research - Part C: Emerging Technologies},
      year = {2010},
      month = {Dec},
      volume = {18},
      number = {6},
      pages = {975-989},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2010.07.007}
      }
  
Barrado, C., Messeger, R., López, J., Pastor, E., Santamaria, E. & Royo, P. 2010 (Oct-Dec). Wildfire Monitoring Using a Mixed Air-Ground Mobile Network. IEEE Pervasive Computing. Vol. 9 (4) pp. 24-32.
Keywords: mobile applications, UAS, firefighting, Wi-Fi, mobile ad hoc network, pervasive computing
Abstract: Forest fires are an important problem for many countries. They suppose economical lost, ecological damage, and they may cost human lives. This paper targets a forest fire related task on immediate post-fire, known as hot spots. Our main objective is to obtain a temperature map of the burnt area for locating the most critical embers. This information is provided to the fire managers to help them in making the correct decisions about ground crew movements. In this scenario every fireman holds a Personal Electronic Device (PED) as part of its basic equipment. The PED includes a touchscreen, WiFi connectivity, GPS and temperature sensors creating a connection network between the crew. Conditions of the terrain, like abrupt ravines, rocks, or dense vegetation, may introduce obstacles to the connectivity. We propose the use of a new technological equipment for improving communication: A balloon tethered to every firemen's truck. We still propose to augment the number of communication layers to three by introducing a new vehicle: a fixed wing (unmanned) aircraft. The objective is to obtain a global temperature map and to improve the network quality. In the paper we measure the impact of introducing the aircraft on the application connectivity.
BibTeX:
      @article{barrado_10_wildfire,
      author = {Cristina Barrado and Roc Messeger and Juan López and Enric Pastor and Eduard Santamaria and Pablo Royo},
      title = {Wildfire Monitoring Using a Mixed Air-Ground Mobile Network},
      journal = {IEEE Pervasive Computing},
      year = {2010},
      month = {Oct-Dec},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {24-32},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MPRV.2010.54}
      }
  
Prats, X., Puig, V., Quevedo, J. & Nejjari, F. 2010 (Jan-Feb). Lexicographic optimisation for optimal departure aircraft trajectories. Aerospace Science and Technology. Vol. 14 (1) pp. 26-37.
Keywords: Aircraft noise abatement, aircraft trajectory optimization, multi-objectiveoptimization
Abstract: This paper presents a strategy for designing noise abatement procedures, aimed at reducing the exposure to noise of the population living around the airports. Noise optimal departing routes are computed for a specific aircraft type and for a given scenario (airport and airspace configuration, local geography, etc.). Hence, a non-linear multi-objective optimal control problem is formally identified and detailed. Lexicographic optimisation is presented as an alternative optimisation technique to the common used weighting methods. Thisapproach establishes a hierarchical order among all the optimisation objectives instead of giving them a specific (and most of the time, arbitrary) weight. In this work, the optimisation criteria are chosenas the maximum perceived noise levels at different sensitive locationsas well as some criteria associated with the operation of the aircraft. A practical example is given, in a hypothetical scenario, showing how the proposed optimisation technique may help aircraft proceduredesigners when dealing with departing routes.
BibTeX:
      @article{prats_10_lexicographic,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Vicenç Puig and Joseba Quevedo and Fatiha Nejjari},
      title = {Lexicographic optimisation for optimal departure aircraft trajectories},
      journal = {Aerospace Science and Technology},
      year = {2010},
      month = {Jan-Feb},
      volume = {14},
      number = {1},
      pages = {26-37},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ast.2009.11.003}
      }
  
Comellas, F., Gonz�lez, R. & Santamaria, E. 2009 (Dec). Simulaci�n: Un curso innovador en los estudios de Aeron�utica. ReVisi�n. Vol. 2 (2) pp. 1-7.
Keywords: CFD, numerical methods, collaborative learning
Abstract: Presentamos aqu� una nueva metodolog�a en la impartici�n de un curso de ciencias de la computaci�n con �nfasis particular en aspectos de din�mica de fluidos computacional (DFC) y las experiencias que se derivan de esta implementaci�n. Las actividades principales que los estudiantes realizan en este curso son: el desarrollo de un proyecto inicial en la tem�tica de ciencias de los materiales, la elaboraci�n de un proyecto largo en DFC y una introducci�n al uso de un paquete de software espec�fico de DFC. Los proyectos se realizan por grupos y consisten en la implementaci�n (programaci�n) de modelos matem�ticos y una interfaz gr�fica que permita la visualizaci�n de los resultados que se obtengan mediante la resoluci�n num�rica de los modelos considerados. La innovaci�n en la asignatura se da en la utilizaci�n de t�cnicas de aprendizaje basado en proyectos o Project Based Learning y en el hecho que el curso es impartido de forma coordinada por varios profesores que provienen de �reas distintas. Otro aspecto novedoso lo constituye la oportunidad que presenta el curso para que los estudiantes redacten informes escritos, hagan presentaciones orales, utilicen el ingl�s y trabajen en un entorno Linux para el desarrollo de los proyectos.
BibTeX:
      @article{comellas_09_simulacion,
      author = {Francesc Comellas and Ricard Gonz�lez and Eduard Santamaria},
      title = {Simulaci�n: Un curso innovador en los estudios de Aeron�utica},
      journal = {ReVisi�n},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Dec},
      volume = {2},
      number = {2},
      pages = {1-7},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/7070}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Barrado, C., Royo, P., López, J. & Santamaria, E. 2009 (Jan). An Open Architecture for the Integration of UAV Civil Applications. In Aerial Vehicles. Lam, T.M. (Ed.) Chap. 24. pp. 511-536. IN-TECH,
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, distributed architecture, middleware, flight plan, mission
BibTeX:
      @incollection{pastor_09_open,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Cristina Barrado and Pablo Royo and Juan López and Eduard Santamaria},
      editor = {Thanh Mung Lam},
      title = {An Open Architecture for the Integration of UAV Civil Applications},
      booktitle = {Aerial Vehicles},
      publisher = {IN-TECH},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Jan},
      pages = {511-536},
      url = {http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/an_open_architecture_for_the_integration_of_uav_civil_applications}
      }
  
Gonz�lez, R., Santamaria, E. & Yebra, J.L.A. 2008. The Simulation Course: An Innovative Way of Teaching Computational Science in Aeronautics. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol. 5102/2008 pp. 735-744. SpringerLink,
Keywords: CFD, numerical methods, collaborative learning
Abstract: This article describes an innovative methodology for teaching an undergraduate course on Computational Science, with a particular emphasis in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), and the experiences derived from its implementation. The main activities taking place during this course are: development by students of a training project on a topic in materials science, development of a larger CFD project, and an introduction to a CFD commercial package. Projects are carried out by groups of students and are assigned from a set of different available possibilities. Project development consists in the implementation in code of the corresponding mathematical models and a graphical interface which permits the visualization of the results derived from the numerical resolution of the models. The main innovative aspects of the methodology are the use of Project Based Learning combined with the participation of lecturers from different areas of expertise. Other innovative issues include the opportunity for students to practice skills such as report writing, doing oral presentations, the use of English (a foreign language for them) and the use of Linux as the development environment.
BibTeX:
      @incollection{gonzalez_08_simulation,
      author = {Ricard Gonz�lez and Eduard Santamaria and J. Luis A. Yebra},
      title = {The Simulation Course: An Innovative Way of Teaching Computational Science in Aeronautics},
      booktitle = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
      publisher = {SpringerLink},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5102/2008},
      pages = {735-744},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69387-1_85}
      }
  
Rojas, J.I., Prats, X., Montlaur, A. & Garcia-Berro, E. 2008 (Abr). Model rocket workshop: a Problem-Based Learning experience for engineering students. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning. Vol. 3 (4) pp. 70-77.
Keywords: teaching, problem-based Learning, rocketry, tansversal skills
Abstract: A Problem-Based Learning (PBL) experience for undergraduate students of aerospace engineering is described in this paper. The experience allows the students to build a model rocket using materials which can be easily obtained. They also compute all the relevant quantities to design and characterize the rocket and they test the robustness of their design. They furthermore launch the rocket with the corresponding payload and verify the flight parameters using an on-board altimeter. Finally, they also compare the flight parameters with the theoretically expected values. Using this simple scheme the students are later introduced in the simulation of complex flows, using standard techniques. We find that our students get rapidly involved in the project, allowing them to acquire several practical abilities, besides developing an accurate knowledge of the physics of rockets and of fluid dynamics.
BibTeX:
      @article{rojas_08_model,
      author = {Jose Ignacio Rojas and Xavier Prats and Adeline Montlaur and Enrique Garcia-Berro},
      title = {Model rocket workshop: a Problem-Based Learning experience for engineering students},
      journal = {International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning},
      year = {2008},
      month = {Abr},
      volume = {3},
      number = {4},
      pages = {70-77},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/2383},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v3i4.290}
      }
  
Pastor, E., López, J. & Royo, P. 2007 (Jun). UAV Payload and Mission Control Hardware/Software Architecture. IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine. Vol. 22 (6) pp. 3-8.
Keywords:
Abstract: This paper presents an embedded hardware/software architecture specially designed to be applied on mini/micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). An UAV is low-cost non-piloted airplane designed to operate in D-cube (Dangerous-Dirty-Dull) situations [8]. Many types of UAVs exist today; however with the advent of UAV's civil applications, the class of mini/micro UAVs is emerging as a valid option in a commercial scenario. This type of UAV shares limitations with most computer embedded systems: limited space, limited power resources, increasing computation requirements, complexity of the applications, time to market requirements, etc. UAVs are automatically piloted by an embedded system named “Flight Control System”. Many of those systems are commercially available today, however no commercial system exists nowadays that provides support to the actual mission that the UAV should perform.
This paper introduces a hardware/software architecture specially designed to operate as a flexible payload and mission controller in a mini/micro UAV. Given that the missions UAVs can carry on justify their existence, we believe that specific payload and mission controller s for UAV should be developed. Our architectonic proposal for them orbits around four key elements: a LAN based distributed and scalable hardware architecture, a service/subscription based software architecture and an abstraction communication layer.
BibTeX:
      @article{pastor_07_uav,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Juan López and Pablo Royo},
      title = {UAV Payload and Mission Control Hardware/Software Architecture},
      journal = {IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine},
      year = {2007},
      month = {Jun},
      volume = {22},
      number = {6},
      pages = {3-8},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MAES.2007.384074}
      }
  
Prats, X., Quevedo, J., Nejjari, F. & Puig, V. 2007 (Apr). Optimisation of aircraft trajectories in order to minimise noise nuisances modeled with fuzzy logic -- Optimización de trayectorias de aviones para minimizar la molestia acústica modelizada mediante lógica borrosa. Revista Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática Industrial. Vol. 4 (2) pp. 43-51. (in Spanish).
Keywords: Aircraft noise abatement, aircraft trajectory optimization, multi-objective optimization, fuzzy logic
Abstract: El aumento sostenido del tráfico aéreo de las últimas décadas y el crecimiento de numeroasa zonas urbanizadas alrededor de los aeropuertos hace que cada vez sea más importante tomar medidas para mitigar los ruidos generados por los aviones. Este trabajo presenta una estrategia para diseñar trayectorias de despegue o aterrizaje en un determinado aeropuerto y para un determinado modelo de aronave utilizando la lógica borrosa y la optimización multicriterio.
BibTeX:
      @article{prats_07_optimisation,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Joseba Quevedo and Fatiha Nejjari and Vicenç Puig},
      title = {Optimisation of aircraft trajectories in order to minimise noise nuisances modeled with fuzzy logic -- Optimización de trayectorias de aviones para minimizar la molestia acústica modelizada mediante lógica borrosa},
      journal = {Revista Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática Industrial},
      year = {2007},
      month = {Apr},
      volume = {4},
      number = {2},
      pages = {43-51},
      note = {(in Spanish)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/2475}
      }
  

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