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Bussink, F.J., Verhoeven, R., Marsman, A., Prats, X., Bendris, B., Montolio, J. & Day, B. 2016 (Jan). Optimization of the vertical trajectory through Time and Energy management: A Human in the-Loop Study. In Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, AIAA SciTech. AIAA, San Diego, CA (USA). Paper number AIAA 2016-1626.
Keywords: CDO; trajectory optimisation; TEMO; human-in-the-loop
Abstract: A new on board integrated planning and guidance concept has been developed that attempts to optimize the vertical trajectory to achieve a continuous engine-idle descent while satisfying time constraints. The new concept, named Time and Energy Managed Operations (TEMO), reduces noise, gaseous emissions and fuel consumption, while adhering to time constraints yielding control points for aircraft spacing and sequencing. The concept allows small deviations between planned and actual trajectory within pre-set boundaries and calculates a new trajectory when these deviations are exceeded. The concept was evaluated in a Full Motion Flight Simulator at the premises of the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR) in Amsterdam. Six pilots were invited to provide feedback of the TEMO concept with respect to operation, safety and certification requirements and to demonstrate that the TEMO Technology Readiness Level (TRL) achieved level 5, in that the technology is demonstrated in a relevant (simulated) environment. Conclusions drawn from the responses to the questionnaires and any issues that have emerged indicate that TEMO is a promising concept that may play a valuable role in ATM facilitation. Recommendations for future research include the use of more involved scenarios and active participation of ATC.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{bussink_16_optimization,
      author = {Frank J.L. Bussink and Ronald Verhoeven and Adri Marsman and Xavier Prats and Bianca Bendris and Josep Montolio and Brent Day},
      title = {Optimization of the vertical trajectory through Time and Energy management: A Human in the-Loop Study},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, AIAA SciTech},
      publisher = {AIAA},
      year = {2016},
      month = {Jan},
      address = {San Diego, CA (USA)},
      note = {Paper number AIAA 2016-1626},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2016-1626}
      }
  
Prats, X., Bussink, F., Verhoeven, R. & Marsman, A. 2015 (Sep). Evaluation of in-flight trajectory optimisation with time constraints in a moving base flight simulator. In Proceedings of the 34th Digital Avionics Systems Conference. IEEE/AIAA, Prague (Czech Republic).
Keywords: TEMO; trajectory optimisation; CDO; simulation
Abstract: This paper describes an aircraft trajectory optimisation algorithm that is part of the time and energy managed operations (TEMO) concept, a new trajectory planning and guidance strategy for advanced four dimensional (4D) continuous decent operations. In TEMO, a trajectory is planned in such a way that the best vertical trajectory profile is computed (according to a given optimisation objective), while satisfying at the same time air traffic control required times or arrival (RTA) at one or more waypoints. The guidance part of TEMO is mainly based on a speed- on-elevator law, where the calibrated speed plan is followed. TEMO was evaluated in a highly realistic environment with qualified pilots using the Generic Research Aircraft Cockpit Environment (GRACE), at the National Aerospace Laboratory of The Netherlands (NLR). Results show that the TEMO algorithm largely meets time accuracy requirements at the initial approach fix, while further work is needed to achieve the very demanding accuracies imposed at the runway threshold.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_15_evaluation,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Frank Bussink and Ronald Verhoeven and Adri Marsman},
      title = {Evaluation of in-flight trajectory optimisation with time constraints in a moving base flight simulator},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 34th Digital Avionics Systems Conference},
      year = {2015},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Prague (Czech Republic)},
      organization =  {IEEE/AIAA}
      }
  
Prats, X., Vilardaga, S., Isanta, R., Bas, I. & Birling, F. 2015 (Sep). WEMSgen: a real-time weather modelling library for on-board trajectory optimisation and planning. In Proceedings of the 34th Digital Avionics Systems Conference. IEEE/AIAA, Prague (Czech Republic). (Best paper in session award)..
Keywords: weather; wind; splines; TEMO; trajectory optimisation; CDO
Abstract: WEMSgen is a stand-alone application developed within the Clean Sky FASTOP (Fast Optimiser for continuous descent approaches) project that is capable to load weather data in standard GRIB (General Regularly-distributed Information in Binary form) files and generate piece-wise polynomial fitting functions that can be used in a latter stage in trajectory planning and/or optimisation algorithms. Assuming a known lateral flight route, meteorological input data (temperature, pressure and wind field) is fitted into cubic B-splines as a function of the aircraft altitude and its distance to the runway threshold. WEMSgen can be queried in real-time by any process that needs weather data. Thus, besides being used for trajectory planning or optimisation algorithms, it also can feed aircraft simulation or visualisation applications, among other. WEMSgen has been successfully used and validated in a flight simulation experiment using the Generic Research Aircraft Cockpit Environment (GRACE) at the National Aerospace Laboratory of The Netherlands (NLR).
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_15_wemsgen,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Santi Vilardaga and Roger Isanta and Isidro Bas and Florent Birling},
      title = {WEMSgen: a real-time weather modelling library for on-board trajectory optimisation and planning},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 34th Digital Avionics Systems Conference},
      year = {2015},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Prague (Czech Republic)},
      organization =  {IEEE/AIAA},
      note = {(Best paper in session award).}
      }
  
Ramírez, J., Barrado, C., Salazar, D., Royo, P. & Prats, X. 2015 (Sep). Passive Vertical Tracking using DME Multilateration. In Proceedings of the 34th Digital Avionics Systems Conference. IEEE/AIAA, Prague (Czech Republic).
Keywords: DME; multilateration; helicopter tracking; surveillance
Abstract: The increasing number of touristic flights over Barcelona city has raised an increasing number of complaints by the city dwellers. The need to distinguish the touristic flights from the state aircraft motivates a study of track technologies where emerges the high cost of conventional tracking means and the limited utility in urban scenarios. The use of DME interrogation signal is analyzed as a proposal to track the helicopters in 3D.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_15_wemsgen,
      author = {Jorge Ramírez and Cristina Barrado and Dagoberto Salazar and Pablo Royo and Xavier Prats},
      title = {Passive Vertical Tracking using DME Multilateration},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 34th Digital Avionics Systems Conference},
      year = {2015},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Prague (Czech Republic)},
      organization =  {IEEE/AIAA}
      }
  
Vilardaga, S. & Prats, X. 2015 (Sep). Mass Estimation for an Adaptive Trajectory Predictor using Optimal Control. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems (ATACCS2015). HALA! SESAR, Toulouse.
Keywords: trajectory optimisation; self-separation; mass estimation; trajectory prediction
Abstract: Air traffic predictability is paramount in the air traffic system in order to enable concepts such as Trajectory Based Operations (TBO) and higher automation levels for self-separation. Whereas in simulated environments 4D conflict-free trajectory optimisation has shown good potential in the improvement of air traffic efficiency, its application to real operations has been very challenging due to the current lack of information sharing between airspace users. Consequently, such operations are still very limited in scope and rarely attempted in dense traffic situations. Better predictability of other traffic future states would be an enabler for each aircraft to fly its user preferred route without decreasing safety in a self-separation context. But this is not an easy task when basic aircraft parameters such as aircraft weight, performance data or airline strategies are not available at the time of prediction. In this paper the authors propose to compensate this hindrance by continuously integrating the state of the surounding traffic to improve the ownship's knowledge of other aircraft's dynamics. Specifically, conventional position (and velocity) messages, as coming from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B), are integrated at the ownship. Then, an optimisation problem is formulated, using optimal control theory, that minimises the error with the known states, having the parameters of study (i.e. mass) as decision variables. A scenario with two departing trajectories is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this parameter estimation method. In it, the take-off mass of the potential intruder is estimated on-board the ownship and its impact to conflict detection and resolution is presented, demonstrating the big improvements in predictability and safety.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{vilardaga_15_mass,
      author = {Santi Vilardaga and Xavier Prats},
      title = {Mass Estimation for an Adaptive Trajectory Predictor using Optimal Control},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems (ATACCS2015)},
      year = {2015},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Toulouse},
      organization =  {HALA! SESAR}
      }
  
Salamí, E., Soler, J., Cuadrado, R., Barrado, C. & Pastor, E. 2015 (May). Virtualizing super-computation on-board UAS. In The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, ISRSE-36. ISPRS, Berlin, Germany.
Keywords: Architecture Issues, UAS Operations, ATM Integration
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{ISRSE2015,
      author = {E. Salamí and J.A. Soler and R. Cuadrado and C. Barrado and E. Pastor},
      title = {Virtualizing super-computation on-board UAS},
      booktitle = {The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, ISRSE-36},
      year = {2015},
      month = {May},
      address = {Berlin, Germany},
      organization =  {ISPRS},
      url = {http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/ISRSE36/ISRSE36-354-1.pdf}
      }
  
Hernández-Pajares, M., Prieto-Cerdeira, R., Bénigue, Y., Garcia-Rigo, A., Kinrade, J., Kauristie, K., Orus-Perez, R., Schlueter, S., Serant, D., Nava, B., Krankowski, A., Secretan, H., Sampedro, R. & Prats, X. 2015 (Apr). MONITOR ionospheric monitoring system: analysis of perturbed days affecting SBAS performance. In Proceedings of the ION's Pacific PNT Conference. The Institute of Navigation, Honolulu, Hawaii (USA).
Keywords: GNSS, ionosphere, SBAS, EGNOS
Abstract: The Monitor project has been designed to monitor ionospheric events that would allow evaluating its impact on European GNSS Systems. It includes a network of ionospheric scintillation monitoring stations in various locations covering different latitude regions and its routine data collection; and, the generation and collection of relevant products that allow understanding ionospheric perturbations from the ionosphere. This paper presents an overview of the project and how it is able to support SBAS systems, including also the analysis of perturbed days during Solar Cycle 24.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{hernandez-pajares_15_monitor,
      author = {Manuel Hernández-Pajares and R. Prieto-Cerdeira and Y. Bénigue and Alberto Garcia-Rigo and J. Kinrade and K. Kauristie and R. Orus-Perez and S. Schlueter and D. Serant and B. Nava and A. Krankowski and H. Secretan and Rodrigo Sampedro and Xavier Prats},
      title = {MONITOR ionospheric monitoring system: analysis of perturbed days affecting SBAS performance},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the ION's Pacific PNT Conference},
      year = {2015},
      month = {Apr},
      address = {Honolulu, Hawaii (USA)},
      organization =  {The Institute of Navigation}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Perez-Batlle, M., Royo, P., Cuadrado, R. & Barrado, C. 2014 (Oct). Real-time Simulations to Evaluate the RPAS Integration in Shared Airspace. In Proceedings of the 4th SESAR Innovation Days (SIDs2014). EUROCONTROL, Madrid, Spain.
Keywords: RPAS; ATM; Non-segregated airspace;SESAR
Abstract: This paper presents the work done during the first year in the WP-E project ERAINT (Evaluation of the RPAS-ATM Interaction in Non-Segregated Airspace) that intends to evaluate by means of human-in-the-loop real-time simulations the interaction between a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) and the Air Traffic Management (ATM) when a Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) is being operated in shared airspace. This interaction will be evaluated from three different perspectives. First, the separation management, its results are presented in this paper. Secondly, during the next year, the contingency management, also including loss of link situations and, lastly, the capacity impact of such operations in the overall ATM system. The used simulation infrastructure allows to simulate realistic exercises from both the RPAS Pilot-in-Command (PiC) and the Air Traffic Controller (ATCo) perspectives. Moreover, it permits to analyze the actual workload of the ATC and to evaluate several support tools and different RPAS levels of automation from the PiC and ATC sides. The simulation results and the usefulness of the support tools are presented for each selected concept of operations.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{SIDs2014,
      author = {Pastor, E and Perez-Batlle, M and Royo, P and Cuadrado, R and Barrado, C},
      title = {Real-time Simulations to Evaluate the RPAS Integration in Shared Airspace},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 4th SESAR Innovation Days (SIDs2014)},
      year = {2014},
      month = {Oct},
      address = {Madrid, Spain},
      organization =  {EUROCONTROL}
      }
  
Verhoeven, R., Dalmau, R., Prats, X. & de Gelder, N. 2014 (Sep). Real-time aircraft continuous descent trajectory optimization with ATC time constraints using direct collocation methods. In Proceedings of the 29th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences. ICAS, St. Petersburg (Russia).
Keywords: trajectory optimisation; TEMO; CDO; FMS
Abstract: In this paper an initial implementation of a real-time aircraft trajectory optimization algorithm is presented. The aircraft trajectory for descent and approach is computed for minimum use of thrust and speed brake in support of a �green� continuous descent and approach flight operation, while complying with ATC time constraints for maintaining runway throughput and considering realistic wind conditions. The trajectory optimizer forms an important part of a new integrated, planning and guidance concept named TEMO (Time and Energy Managed Operations) developed in the Systems for Green Operations (SGO) Clean Sky EU-project. It is compared with a typical FMS (as can be found in an A320), showing improvements regarding time adherence performance and environmental impact.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{verhoeven_14_real-time,
      author = {Ronald Verhoeven and Ramon Dalmau and Xavier Prats and Nico de Gelder},
      title = {Real-time aircraft continuous descent trajectory optimization with ATC time constraints using direct collocation methods},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 29th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences},
      publisher = {ICAS},
      year = {2014},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {St. Petersburg (Russia)}
      }
  
Prats, X., P�rez-Batlle, M., Barrado, C., Vilardaga, S., Bas, I., Birling, F., Verhoeven, R. & Marsman, A. 2014 (Jun). Enhancement of a time and energy management algorithm for continuous descent operations. In Proceedings of the 14th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference, AIAA Aviation and Aeronautics Forum and Exposition. AIAA, Atlanta, Georgia (USA). (AIAA paper 2014-3151).
Keywords: trajectory optimisation; TEMO; CDO; weather; wind
Abstract: In previous research, an aircraft trajectory planning algorithm was developed aiming at optimizing continuous descent operations with required times of arrival at given waypoints. A non-linear optimal control problem was solved by using direct transcription methods. In this paper, enhanced models for the same optimization framework are presented, im- proving the accuracy of the optimized trajectories. These new models take into account wind, realistic atmospheric conditions, curved trajectories and general improvements in the aircraft dynamics model. Preliminary results are shown in a hypothetical scenario where trajectories are optimized from cruise altitude to the runway with different required times of arrival at the threshold. The effects of wind and non-standard atmospheres can be easily appreciated.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_14_enhancement,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Marc P�rez-Batlle and Cristina Barrado and Santi Vilardaga and Isidro Bas and Florent Birling and Ronald Verhoeven and Adri Marsman},
      title = {Enhancement of a time and energy management algorithm for continuous descent operations},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 14th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference, AIAA Aviation and Aeronautics Forum and Exposition},
      year = {2014},
      month = {Jun},
      address = {Atlanta, Georgia (USA)},
      organization =  {AIAA},
      note = {(AIAA paper 2014-3151)}
      }
  
Vilardaga, S., Prats, X., Duan, P. & Haag, M.U.D. 2014 (Jun). Conflict Free Trajectory Optimisation with Target Tracking and Conformance Monitoring. In Proceedings of the 14th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference, AIAA Aviation and Aeronautics Forum and Exposition. AIAA, Atlanta, Georgia (USA). (AIAA paper 2014-2022).
Keywords: trajectory optimisation; optimal control; conflict-free trajectories; 4D trajectories
Abstract: In an effort to improve the efficiency of air traffic operations, whilst reducing the envi- ronmental impact on aviation and increase capacity, 4D trajectory optimisation has shown good potential. In previous research the authors have described a framework where complex departure routes can be optimised, producing conflict free fuel optimal trajectories. The research in this paper extends this concept to account for prediction uncertainty of future states of intruding traffic. It is proposed to continuously monitor the surounding traffic and recompute the ownship trajectory whenever a deviation from nominal traffic behavior arises. The effectiveness of the conformance monitoring function is evalutated in a scenario with two aircraft flying standard departing procedures from Barcelona and Reus airports.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{vilardaga_14_conflict,
      author = {Santi Vilardaga and Xavier Prats and Phil Duan and Maartten Uijt De Haag},
      title = {Conflict Free Trajectory Optimisation with Target Tracking and Conformance Monitoring},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 14th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference, AIAA Aviation and Aeronautics Forum and Exposition},
      year = {2014},
      month = {Jun},
      address = {Atlanta, Georgia (USA)},
      organization =  {AIAA},
      note = {(AIAA paper 2014-2022)}
      }
  
Dalmau, R. & Prats, X. 2014 (May). How much fuel and time can be saved in a perfect flight trajectory? Continuous cruise climbs vs. conventional operations. In Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Research in AirTransportation (ICRAT). Eurocontrol/FAA, Istanbul, Turkey. Best paper in track award.
Keywords: continuous operations; cruise climbs; trajectory optimisation; optimal control;
Abstract: Continuous climb, cruise and decent operations (referred as continuous operations) may contribute to significantly reduce fuel and emissions. Nevertheless, it is obvious that the introduction of such procedures at large scale is not possible with the current air traffic management concept of operations, since flying at constant altitudes is one of the key aspects to strategically separate flows of aircraft. This paper tries to quantify what would be the potential savings of flying such optimised vertical profiles. A multiphase optimal control problem is formulated and solved by means of numerical optimisation. Optimal conventional trajectories (subject to realistic air traffic management practices and constraints) are compared with optimal continuous (and ideal) operations, only subject to aircraft performance constraints. Results show that the continuous cruise phase can lead to fuel savings between 1% and 2% of the total trip fuel for an Airbus A320. Interestingly, continuous operations show also a reduction of trip times between 1% and 5% of the total trip time, depending on the trip distancebetween origin and destination airports.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{dalmau_14_fuel,
      author = {Ramon Dalmau and Xavier Prats},
      title = {How much fuel and time can be saved in a perfect flight trajectory? Continuous cruise climbs vs. conventional operations},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Research in AirTransportation (ICRAT)},
      year = {2014},
      month = {May},
      address = {Istanbul, Turkey},
      organization =  {Eurocontrol/FAA},
      note = {Best paper in track award}
      }
  
García, I., Valero, M., Prats, X. & Delgado, L. 2014 (May). Agent-based simulation framework for airport collaborative decision making. In Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Research in AirTransportation (ICRAT). EUROCONTROL/FAA, Istanbul, Turkey.
Keywords: agent-based modelling; airport collaborative decision making; SESAR
Abstract: Airport Collaborative Decision Making (A-CDM) is based on information sharing. A better use of resources can be attained when the different stakeholders at airport operations share their more accurate and updated information. One of the main difficulties when dealing with this information sharing concept is the number of stakeholders involved and their different interest and behaviour: aircraft operators, ground handling companies, airport authority, air traffic control and the Central Flow Management Unit. It is paramount to quantify the benefit of an airport collaborative decision making strategy in order toinvolve all these different organisations. Simulations are required to analyse the overall system and its emerging behaviour. This paper presents the development and initial testing of an agent-based framework, which allows this behavioural analysis to be done. The simulator explicitly represents the different stakeholders involved in the A-CDM and the interactions between them during the 16 milestones defined by EUROCONTROL on its A-CDM implementation manual. This frameworkallows independent gradual development of local behaviours and optimisation, and a gradual increase on complexity and fidelity on the simulations.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{garcia_14_agent,
      author = {Ivan García and Miguel Valero and Xavier Prats and Luis Delgado},
      title = {Agent-based simulation framework for airport collaborative decision making},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Research in AirTransportation (ICRAT)},
      year = {2014},
      month = {May},
      address = {Istanbul, Turkey},
      organization =  {EUROCONTROL/FAA}
      }
  
Vilardaga, S. & Prats, X. 2014 (May). Conflict free trajectory optimisation for complex departure procedures. In Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Research in Air Transportation (ICRAT). Eurocontrol/FAA, Istanbul, Turkey.
Keywords: trajectory optimisation; optimal control; conflict-free trajectories; 4D trajectories
Abstract: 4D trajectory optimisation has showed good poten- tial to reduce environmental impact in aviation, increase capacity and improve the efficiency of the operations. The research described in this paper proposes a dynamic optimiser for complex (and realistic) lateral and vertical trajectories, defined by a set of waypoints that define a flight plan. Different routes can be optimised independently, producing a vertical, lateral and speed profile that burns the minimum fuel. Additionally, may one conflict arise between two independent trajectories, each aircraft will recompute its optimal trajectory with separation assurance constraints defined as a cylindrical protection zone. Examples are given for standard instrumental departures at Barcelona and Reus airports. Different results are shown for strategies that allow both lateral and vertical deviations, or vertical deviations only. In a highly automated air traffic system the framework described in this paper enhances the situational awareness of the airspace user by providing information of the ownship energy state in accordance to the separation with the surrounding traffic.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{vilardaga_14_conflicta,
      author = {Santi Vilardaga and Xavier Prats},
      title = {Conflict free trajectory optimisation for complex departure procedures},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Research in Air Transportation (ICRAT)},
      year = {2014},
      month = {May},
      address = {Istanbul, Turkey},
      organization =  {Eurocontrol/FAA}
      }
  
Cuadrado, R., Royo, P., Barrado, C., Pérez-Batlle, M. & Pastor, E. 2013 (Nov). Architecture issues and challenges for the integration of RPAS in non-segregated airspace. In Proceedings of the IEEE 32nd Digital Avionics Systems Conference. IEEE/AIAA, Syracuse, NY (USA).
Keywords: Architecture Issues, UAS Operations, ATM Integration
Abstract: Despite the evolution of unmanned aircraft systems (UASs), the technological development on airframes, autopilots, communications and payload, is still limited by the absence of software standardization. Engineers face the development of UAS systems with the implementation of ad - hoc solutions to satisfy the mission requirements. This is a major limitation with regard to the software maintenance and re-usability that may result in an increment of both project cost and risk. Wellstructured UAS avionics supporting increased levels of automation (and eventually autonomy), together with reconfiguration capabilities and costeffectiveness, are key requirements for UAS to be successful in a global scenario. Additionally the major civil applications require UAS with access to non-segregated airspace. Following Eurocontrol, FAA and ICAO philosophy, the introduction of unmanned traffic should not affect ATM operations, thus UAS should comply with the performance levels required by SESAR and NextGen. Hence, operations with unmanned aircraft should guarantee safe and efficient interaction with the ATM system. In that aspect gaps and issues into unmanned aircraft software architectures are discussed in this paper. Required mechanism for ATM communication, collision avoidance, maneuver automation and SESAR/NextGen integration are discussed to identify possible short-term and long-term software requirements. Moreover, existing standardized software frameworks and proposed software proposed are reviewed to identify the gaps it should deal with to achieve an efficient UAS integration.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{cuadrado_13_architecture,
      author = {Raul Cuadrado and Pablo Royo and Cristina Barrado and Marc Pérez-Batlle and Enric Pastor},
      title = {Architecture issues and challenges for the integration of RPAS in non-segregated airspace},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE 32nd Digital Avionics Systems Conference},
      year = {2013},
      month = {Nov},
      address = {Syracuse, NY (USA)},
      organization =  {IEEE/AIAA}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Perez-Batlle, M., Royo, P., Cuadrado, R. & Barrado, C. 2013 (Nov). Preparing for an Unmanned Future in SESAR Real-time Simulation of RPAS Missions. In SESAR Innovation Days(SID2013). Eurocontrol, Stokholm, (Swedeen).
Keywords: unmanned systems; airspace integration, simulator
Abstract: The insertion of RPAS in non-segregated IFR airspace has a number of well defined research gaps that need to be addressed in order to progress forward with the integration. Specially in the ATM domain, the lack of flight experience for RPAS maintains the myth that they will impose an increased burden to ATCo, thus reducing the operational safety and airspace capacity. The ISIS+ simulation infrastructure will allow the real time simulation of IFR operations by coupling a highly capable RPAS simulation system together with one of Eurocontrols ATC simulation environment called eDEP. Complex RPAS missions will be carried out under historic or forecast traffic obtained from Eurocontrols DDR2 database. Real ATC controllers can monitor the sectors of interest, while RPAS pilots can operate the simulated RPAS, and experienced pilots can operate the surrounding simulated IFR traffic. In all cases, voice commu- nications, transponder and ADS-B, data-link, satellite induced latency, etc; can be reproduced as close to reality as possible. Overall ISIS+ will facilitate the reproduction of a variety of RPAS operational scenarios, asses its interaction with traffic controllers and surrounding traffic, and evaluate is any significant ATCo workload increase or capacity reductions occur for each selected concept of operation.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{pastor_13_preparing,
      author = {E. Pastor and M. Perez-Batlle and P. Royo and R. Cuadrado and C. Barrado},
      title = {Preparing for an Unmanned Future in SESAR Real-time Simulation of RPAS Missions},
      booktitle = {SESAR Innovation Days(SID2013)},
      publisher = {Eurocontrol},
      year = {2013},
      month = {Nov},
      address = {Stokholm, (Swedeen)}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Royo, P., Cuadrado, R., Barrado, C. & Pérez-Batlle, M. 2013 (Nov). Eraint - Evaluation of the RPAS-ATM interaction in non-segregated airspace. In SESAR Innovation Days(SID2013). Eurocontrol, Stokholm, (Swedeen).
Keywords: unmanned systems; airspace integration, simulator
Abstract: poster
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{pastor_13_eraint,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Pablo Royo and Raul Cuadrado and Cristina Barrado and Marc Pérez-Batlle},
      title = {Eraint - Evaluation of the RPAS-ATM interaction in non-segregated airspace},
      booktitle = {SESAR Innovation Days(SID2013)},
      publisher = {Eurocontrol},
      year = {2013},
      month = {Nov},
      address = {Stokholm, (Swedeen)}
      }
  
Royo, P., Cuadrado, R., Barrado, C., Salamí, E., Pérez-Batlle, M. & Pastor, E. 2013 (Nov). Towards the automation of the UAS mission management. In Proceedings of the IEEE 32nd Digital Avionics Systems Conference. IEEE/AIAA, Syracuse, NY (USA).
Keywords: Mission Automation, UAS Operations
Abstract: Most unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are, at present, designed for military purposes and very few civil applications have been developed mainly because the lack of a regulation basis concerning their certification, airworthiness and operations. UAS operations have always been solutions highly dependent on the mission to be accomplished and on the scenario of flight. The generalized development of UAS applications is still limited by the absence of systems that support the development of the actual operations. Most current UAS solutions, if not remotely piloted, rely on waypoint based flight control system for their navigation and are unable to coordinate the aircraft flight with payload and mission operation. In this paper, an architecture for providing automation in UAS application is presented. This architecture is part of a UAS-specific distributed service-oriented architecture designed to enable easy reconfiguration and deployment of UAS in a wide range of scenarios without (or very little) additional system development. Flight, payload and mission service coordination, service interfaces and message interactions between services are discussed in this paper. Finally, a preliminary prototype of these services has been implemented to validate the purpose architecture specification. Additionally, a helicopter-based UAS is being developed to test in real scenarios the automation capabilities provided by the USAL architecture.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{royo_13_towards,
      author = {Pablo Royo and Raul Cuadrado and Cristina Barrado and Esther Salamí and Marc Pérez-Batlle and Enric Pastor},
      title = {Towards the automation of the UAS mission management},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE 32nd Digital Avionics Systems Conference},
      year = {2013},
      month = {Nov},
      address = {Syracuse, NY (USA)},
      organization =  {IEEE/AIAA}
      }
  
Barrado, C., Cuadrado, R., Delgado, L., Mellibovsky, F., Pastor, E., P�rez-Batlle, M., Prats, X., Rojas, J.I., Royo, P. & Valero, M. 2013 (Jun). Una experiencia de unificaci�n de asignaturas para desplegar PBL (y las quejas que origin�). In Actas de las XIX Jornadas sobre la Ense�anza Universitaria de la Inform�tica. Escola Superior de Tecnologia i ciencies experimentals. Universitat Jaume I., Castell� de la Plana (Spain). (In Spanish).
Keywords: teaching, problem-based learning, computer science, air traffic management
Abstract: En esta ponencia se describen los aspectos esenciales de una experiencia de unificaci�n de parejas de asignaturas con el objetivo de crear un escenario m�s adecuado para el despliegue de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos. Como gu�a para el repaso de esos aspectos esenciales se utiliza una carta que elaboraron los estudiantes de la primera edici�n para protestar por el funcionamiento de las asignaturas. El an�lisis de las quejas de los estudiantes puede ser de mucha utilidad para otros que se planeen retos similares.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{barrado_13_unaa,
      author = {Cristina Barrado and Ra�l Cuadrado and Luis Delgado and Fernando Mellibovsky and Enric Pastor and Marc P�rez-Batlle and Xavier Prats and Jose I. Rojas and Pablo Royo and Miguel Valero},
      title = {Una experiencia de unificaci�n de asignaturas para desplegar PBL (y las quejas que origin�)},
      booktitle = {Actas de las XIX Jornadas sobre la Ense�anza Universitaria de la Inform�tica},
      year = {2013},
      month = {Jun},
      address = {Castell� de la Plana (Spain)},
      organization =  {Escola Superior de Tecnologia i ciencies experimentals. Universitat Jaume I.},
      note = {(In Spanish)},
      url = {https://upcommons.upc.edu/e-prints/handle/2117/20252}
      }
  
Delgado, L. & Prats, X. 2013 (Jun). Effect of Radii of Exemption on Ground Delay Programs with Operating Cost Based Cruise Speed Reduction. In Proceedings of the 10th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2013). Eurocontrol/FAA, Chicago, IL (USA).
Keywords: Ground delay program; speed reduction; radius of exemption; delay savings
Abstract: When a ground delay program (GDP) is defined, a radius of exemption is typically set to exclude from having to realize ground delay aircraft departing from greater distances than the selected radius distance. A trade-off exists when defining this radius: big radii distribute the required delay among more aircraft and reduce the airborne holding delay close to the destination airport, while the probability to realize unnecessary delay increases if the program is canceled before planned. In order to overcome part of this drawback, a cost based cruise speed reduction strategy aiming at realizing airborne delay was suggested by the authors in previous publications. By flying slower, at a specific speed, aircraft that are airborne can recover part of their initially assigned delay without incurring extra cost if the GDP is canceled before planned. In this paper, the effect of the exemption radius is assessed when applying this strategy and a case study is presented by analyzing all the GDPs that took place at Chicago O’Hare International Airport during one year. Results show that by the introduction of this technique, more delay can be saved. Thus, it is possible to define larger radii of exemption, reducing partially the drawbacks associated with smaller radii.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{delgado_13_effect,
      author = {Luis Delgado and Xavier Prats},
      title = {Effect of Radii of Exemption on Ground Delay Programs with Operating Cost Based Cruise Speed Reduction},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 10th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2013)},
      publisher = {Eurocontrol/FAA},
      year = {2013},
      month = {Jun},
      address = {Chicago, IL (USA)}
      }
  
Perez-Batlle, M., Pastor, E., Prats, X., Royo, P. & Cuadrado, R. 2013 (Jun). Maintaining separation between airliners and RPAS in non-segregated airspace. In Proceedings of the 10th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2013). Eurocontrol/FAA, Chicago, IL (USA). Best paper in track award.
Keywords: Separation conflicts; unmanned systems; airspace integration
Abstract: When an airliner and a Remotely Piloted Air System (RPAS) have conflicting courses that may compromise the min- imum safety separation between them, how much in advance should the RPAS start the separation manoeuvre? Which is the optimal heading change that will guarantee the desired separation distance with a minimum reaction time? These same questions can be asked if it is the airliner that performs the separation manoeuvre. In this paper the time reaction margins for both aircraft are analysed assuming they are equipped with Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) systems able to exchange aircraft intents. Due to their small cruise speeds, RPAS manoeuvres must be initiated well before the airliner ones. This leads to some safety buffer in case the RPAS cannot comply with the required change of trajectory or if it becomes suddenly unresponsive (due to an internal failure or because a lost-link situation). The paper also assesses the operational point of view by simplifying the reaction times and conflict geometries by grouping them in a small set of cases, regarding the severity of a loss of separation event.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{perez-batlle_13_maintaining,
      author = {Marc Perez-Batlle and Enric Pastor and Xavier Prats and Pablo Royo and Raul Cuadrado},
      title = {Maintaining separation between airliners and RPAS in non-segregated airspace},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 10th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2013)},
      publisher = {Eurocontrol/FAA},
      year = {2013},
      month = {Jun},
      address = {Chicago, IL (USA)},
      note = {Best paper in track award},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/20433}
      }
  
Vilardaga, S. & Prats, X. 2013 (May). Effects in fuel consumption of assigning RTAs into 4D trajectory optimisation upon departures. In ATACCS '13: Proceedings of the 3nd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems,. HALA! SESAR network, IRIT Press, Naples, Italy. Best PhD paper award.
Keywords: trajectory optimisation; 4D trajectories; non-linear programming; optimal control; fuel; performance models; BADA; RTA; metering fix;
Abstract: This paper proposes to create a taxonomy of separation conflicts between Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and intruding aircrafts to facilitate its insertion in non- segregated airspace. The classification is created according to the relative speeds, angular geometry, initial intent, etc. A catalog of separation maneuvers that best fit each scenario is introduced and evaluated through a real-time simulation environment. This advisory mechanism will benefit both the UAS pilot and the ATCo in order to negotiate the best suited separation maneuver. Eventually, the same strategy can be employed as an autonomous separation system on-board a UAS that suffers a lost-link contingency, alleviating its negative impact in the airspace.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{vilardaga_13_effects,
      author = {Santi Vilardaga and Xavier Prats},
      title = {Effects in fuel consumption of assigning RTAs into 4D trajectory optimisation upon departures},
      booktitle = {ATACCS '13: Proceedings of the 3nd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems,},
      publisher = {IRIT Press},
      year = {2013},
      month = {May},
      address = {Naples, Italy},
      organization =  {HALA! SESAR network},
      note = {Best PhD paper award}
      }
  
Barrado, C., Fuentes, J.A., Salamí, E., Royo, P., Olariaga, A.D., López, J., Fuentes, V.L., Gili, J.-M. & Pastor, E. 2013 (April). Jellyfish Monitoring on Coastlines using Remote Pilotes Aircraft. In Proceedings of the 35rd International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment ISRSE'13. IOPScience Open Access, Beijing (China).
Keywords:
Abstract: In the last 10 years the number of jellyfish shoals that reach the swimming area of the Mediterranean Sea are increasing constantly. The overfishing of their natural predators and global climate change are the main factors influencing such jellyfish proliferations. The term “Jellyfish” refers to animals from different taxonomic groups but the Scyphomedusae are within the most significant one. Four species of Scyphomedusae are the most conspicuous ones inhabiting the studied area, the Barcelona metropolitan area. Jellyfish are usually found at the surface waters, forming big swarms. This feature makes possible to detect them remotely, using a visual camera and image processing algorithms. Jellyfish remote detection helps to informing swimmers about their presence and also, to obtaining relevant statistics about jellyfish proliferation and movements. In this paper we present the characteristics of a remote piloted aircraft capable to perform monitoring flights during the whole summer season. The requirements of the aircraft are to be easy to operate, to be able to flight at low altitude (100 m) following the buoy line (200 m from the beach line) and to be save for other users of the seaside. The remote piloted aircraft will carry a vision system and a processing board able to obtain useful information on real-time.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{medusas_isrse,
      author = {Cristina Barrado and Javier A. Fuentes and Esther Salamí and Pablo Royo and Alejandro D. Olariaga and Juan López and Verónica L. Fuentes and Jose-Maria Gili and Enric Pastor},
      title = {Jellyfish Monitoring on Coastlines using Remote Pilotes Aircraft},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 35rd International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment ISRSE'13},
      publisher = {IOPScience Open Access},
      year = {2013},
      month = {April},
      address = {Beijing (China)},
      url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/17/1/012195;jsessionid=89E55991CA1A0FAF2E00693C22006BF1.c2}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Perez-Batlle, M., Royo, P., Cuadrado, R., Barrado, C. & Prats, X. 2012 (Nov). On the design of UAS horizontal separation maneuvers. In Proceedings of the 2nd SESAR innovation days. SESAR, Braunschweig (Germany).
Keywords: UAS, integration to civil airspace, separation
Abstract: This paper studies the separation maneuvers that an Unmanned Air System (UAS) may execute to avoid breaching the separation safety margins imposed in each type of airspace, namely 3 NM, 5 NM, and 10 NM. The UAS was assumed under the control of its Pilot in Command, with available information about its surrounding traffic through ADS-B or ADS-C, and most likely under the supervision of an ATCo. A number of UAS separation maneuvers have been identified that may guarantee the desired levels of separation if executed with the right parameters and enough anticipation. This paper focuses on identification of the most suitable maneuver for any separation conflict geometry and performance envelop. The conflict geometry is modeled to take into account the speed of both vehicles (the UAS and the intruder), the conflict angle, the turning limitations of the UAS, the reaction time of the pilot, and the communication latency.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{pastor_12_design,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Marc Perez-Batlle and Pablo Royo and Raul Cuadrado and Cristina Barrado and Xavier Prats},
      title = {On the design of UAS horizontal separation maneuvers},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2nd SESAR innovation days},
      year = {2012},
      month = {Nov},
      address = {Braunschweig (Germany)},
      organization =  {SESAR},
      url = {http://www.sesarinnovationdays.eu/2012/papers}
      }
  
Delgado, L. & Prats, X. 2012 (May). ATFM airborne delays without extra fuel consumption in wind conditions. In Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Research in AirTransportation (ICRAT). EUROCONTROL / FAA, Berkeley, California (USA).
Keywords: Air Traffic Management (ATM), Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM), speed adjustments, wind sensitivity
Abstract: Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) regulations, such as ground holdings, are often canceled before their initially planned ending time. The ground delays impact on the cost of recovering part of the delay if the regulation is canceled, as aircraft are still at the origin airport. In previous publications, the authors have suggested a speed reduction strategy to split the assigned ATFM delay between grounddelay and airborne delay. By flying at the the minimum speed that gives the same fuel consumption as initially planned, the airline can maximize the airborne delay without any extra fuel consumption. In this paper, the effect of wind on the amount of airborne delay is assessed and a case study of Chicago O’hare airport is presented. Results show that wind has a great effect on the airborne delay that can be achieved and that, in some cases, even tail winds might lead to an increase of airborne delay.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{delgado_12_atfm,
      author = {Luis Delgado and Xavier Prats},
      title = {ATFM airborne delays without extra fuel consumption in wind conditions},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Research in AirTransportation (ICRAT)},
      year = {2012},
      month = {May},
      address = {Berkeley, California (USA)},
      organization =  {EUROCONTROL / FAA}
      }
  
Perez-Batlle, M., Pastor, E. & Prats, X. 2012 (May). Evaluation of separation strategies for Unmanned Aerial Systems. In Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Research in Air Transportation (ICRAT). EUROCONTROL / FAA, Berkeley, California (USA).
Keywords: UAS, integration to civil airspace, separation
Abstract: This paper analyzes loss of separation scenarios when an Unmanned Aircraft (UA) enters in conflict with a much faster airplane flying at the same altitude. Separation distances are analyzed in terms of minimum heading changes and reaction times. Results show that maneuvers need to be performed well in advance if the (low-speed) UA is the aircraft that changes its heading. In some cases the time in which the UA and the intruder are in conflict could be too long, and may even involve multiple airliners flying over the same airway. Given that standard separation strategies may have a negative impact on the UA mission, in this paper a set of pre-planned separation maneuvers are proposed. These maneuvers aim to improve the situational awareness of both air traffic controller and UA pilot-in-command, but also to disrupt as less as possible the mission performed by the UA and to minimize the uncertainty in the reactions the UA may adopt autonomously if the link with the ground station is lost. Some preliminary real-time simulations are shown, using a UA ground station simulator linked to a air traffic control simulator.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{perez-batlle_12_evaluation,
      author = {Marc Perez-Batlle and Enric Pastor and Xavier Prats},
      title = {Evaluation of separation strategies for Unmanned Aerial Systems},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Research in Air Transportation (ICRAT)},
      year = {2012},
      month = {May},
      address = {Berkeley, California (USA)},
      organization =  {EUROCONTROL / FAA}
      }
  
Perez-Batlle, M., Pastor, E., Royo, P., Prats, X. & Barrado, C. 2012 (May). A Taxonomy of UAS Separation Maneuvers and their Automated Execution. In ATACCS '12: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems,. Garcia, E., Johnson, C., Ochieng, W.V., Palanque, P., Saez, F.J., Vilaplana, M.A. & Winckler, M. (Ed.) pp. 1-11. HALA! SESAR network, IRIT Press, Toulouse, France, France.
Keywords: UAS, integration to civil airspace, separation
Abstract: This paper proposes to create a taxonomy of separation conflicts between Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and intruding aircrafts to facilitate its insertion in non- segregated airspace. The classification is created according to the relative speeds, angular geometry, initial intent, etc. A catalog of separation maneuvers that best fit each scenario is introduced and evaluated through a real-time simulation environment. This advisory mechanism will benefit both the UAS pilot and the ATCo in order to negotiate the best suited separation maneuver. Eventually, the same strategy can be employed as an autonomous separation system on-board a UAS that suffers a lost-link contingency, alleviating its negative impact in the airspace.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{perez-batlle_12_taxonomy,
      author = {Marc Perez-Batlle and Enric Pastor and Pablo Royo and Xavier Prats and Cristina Barrado},
      editor = {Eduardo Garcia and Chris Johnson and Washington Votto Ochieng and Philippe Palanque and Francisco Javier Saez and Miguel Angel Vilaplana and Marco Winckler},
      title = {A Taxonomy of UAS Separation Maneuvers and their Automated Execution},
      booktitle = {ATACCS '12: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems,},
      publisher = {IRIT Press},
      year = {2012},
      month = {May},
      pages = {1-11},
      address = {Toulouse, France, France},
      organization =  {HALA! SESAR network},
      url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2325676&coll=DL&dl=GUIDE&CFID=291851014&CFTOKEN=80853617}
      }
  
Ibánez, A.G., Flores, C., Reyes, P.D., Barba, A. & Reyes, A. 2011. A performance study of the 802.11 p standard for vehicular applications. In Intelligent environments (IE), 2011 7th international conference on. pp. 165-170. IEEE,
Keywords:
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{ibanez2011performance,
      author = {Ibánez, Antonio Guerrero and Flores, C and Reyes, P Damián and Barba, Antoni and Reyes, Angelica},
      title = {A performance study of the 802.11 p standard for vehicular applications},
      booktitle = {Intelligent environments (IE), 2011 7th international conference on},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {165--170},
      organization =  {IEEE},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=6063381},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IE.2011.26}
      }
  
Delgado, L. & Prats, X. 2011 (Nov). Simulation of airborne ATFM delay and delay recovery by cruise speed reduction. In Proceedings of the First SESAR Innovation Days, 29th. SESAR, Toulouse, France.
Keywords: Air Traffic Management (ATM), Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM), speed adjustments
Abstract: Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) regulations, such as ground holdings, are often cancelled before their initially planned ending time. This early cancellation leads to an unnecessary ground delay and a misuse of airport or airspace resources. In previous publications, the authors have suggested a speed reduction strategy aiming at splitting the assigned ATFM delay between ground delay and airborne delay. If the aircraft flies at the minimum speed that gives the same fuel consumption as initially planned, the airline can maximise the airborne delay without any extra fuel consumption. If the regulation is cancelled before it was initially planned, the aircraft already airborne will be in a better position to recover part of the delay without incurring in additional fuel costs. In ethis paper, this speed reduction strategy has been simulated withthe FACET tool for a whole day of flights inbound San Francisco airport (California). For each flight in the data set, it has been computed the maximum amount of airborne delay that can be performed. Moreover, the amount of delay that can be recovered has been also computed as a function of the time the regulation is cancelled. Preliminary results show, at first glance, a linear relationship between this cancellation time and the delay recovery which encourages as future work, to develop a parametric model of this delay recovery.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{delgado_11_simulation,
      author = {Luis Delgado and Xavier Prats},
      title = {Simulation of airborne ATFM delay and delay recovery by cruise speed reduction},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the First SESAR Innovation Days, 29th},
      year = {2011},
      month = {Nov},
      address = {Toulouse, France},
      organization =  {SESAR}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Royo, P., Pérez-Batlle, M., Prats, X. & Barrado, C. 2011 (Nov). Evaluating Technologies and Mechanisms for the Automated/Autonomous Operation of UAS in Non-Segregated Airspace. In Proceedings of the First SESAR Innovation Days, 29th. SESAR, Toulouse, France.
Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Systems, UAS Operations, ATM Integration
Abstract: This paper focuses on several aspects of the UASATM interaction that have not been previously addressed: separation assurance, contingency reaction and lost link procedures; as well as the evaluation of the trade-off between automated and autonomous UAS operations. These aspects will definitely determine the effectiveness of the UAS integration performing the aforementioned surveillance missions. Our research intents to investigate such relationships and how current ADS-B or future technology may support them. Beyond the conceptual perspective, a simulation environment is being developed to provide functional and quantitative measures to the study of the UAS– ATM interaction. UAS operations are modeled and reproduced in great detail through a wide set of real-time simulations. UAS behavior is being coupled with an ATC simulation environment that will allow to explore the UAS behavior to contingencies, conflicting traffic and ATC requests in real time.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{pastor_11_evaluating,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Pablo Royo and Marc Pérez-Batlle and Xavier Prats and Cristina Barrado},
      title = {Evaluating Technologies and Mechanisms for the Automated/Autonomous Operation of UAS in Non-Segregated Airspace},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the First SESAR Innovation Days, 29th},
      year = {2011},
      month = {Nov},
      address = {Toulouse, France},
      organization =  {SESAR}
      }
  
Torres, O., Ramírez, J., Barrado, C. & Tristancho, J. 2011 (Oct). Synthetic vision for remotely piloted aircraft in non-segregated airspace. In Proceedings of the 30th Digital Avionics Systems Conference. Seattle, WA (USA).
Keywords:
Abstract: Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) provide a computer-generated depiction of the environment according to aircraft flight path and attitude. In the case of Remotely-Piloted Aircraft (RPA), SVS improve dramatically operator situation awareness under reduced visibility conditions due to environment related issues and/or video data link degradation. Even though at their definition NextGen/SESAR frameworks were not thought to integrate RPA operations into non-segregated airspace, concepts such as flow corridors and technologies such as Traffic Information Service – Broadcast will ease their incorporation. This paper proposes and assesses new concepts applied to SVS in order to increase RPA operator situation awareness taking advantage of new data sources that may be available in the future NextGen/SESAR frameworks. Based on raw telemetry data and accessible terrain databases, a SVS is built. The integration of trajectory data and air traffic information is designed and implemented in order to determine its benefits.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{torres_11_synthetic,
      author = {Oscar Torres and Jorge Ramírez and Cristina Barrado and Joshua Tristancho},
      title = {Synthetic vision for remotely piloted aircraft in non-segregated airspace},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 30th Digital Avionics Systems Conference},
      year = {2011},
      month = {Oct},
      address = {Seattle, WA (USA)}
      }
  
Prats, X. & Hansen, M. 2011 (June). Green delay programes, Absorbing ATFM Delay by Flying at Minimum Fuel Speed.. In Proceedings of the 9th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2011). Eurocontrol/FAA, Berlin (Germany).
Keywords: Air Traffic Management (ATM), Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM), speed adjustments
Abstract: Delaying aircraft on ground is one of the most used strategies when an imbalance between planned demand and actual capacity arises, either at an airport or in an airspace sector. This paper focuses on a new strategy consisting in delaying aircraft from their nominal cruise speed to the minimum fuel consumption speed. Therefore, trip times are increased and air traffic management delay can be partially performed in the air. For these flights, fuel consumption is reduced and consequently, their environmental impact. Based on data from ground delay programs at San Francisco International airport during 2006, this paper quantifies the impact that such a strategy would have had if applied to all delayed flights. Results show that for the majority of flights, the 5% to 15% of the initially assigned delay could have been absorbed in the air, leading to fuel savings in the order of 4% to 7% for each individual flight, if compared with the nominal situation.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_11_green,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Mark Hansen},
      title = {Green delay programes, Absorbing ATFM Delay by Flying at Minimum Fuel Speed.},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2011)},
      publisher = {Eurocontrol/FAA},
      year = {2011},
      month = {June},
      address = {Berlin (Germany)},
      url = {http://www.atmseminar.org/papers.cfm?seminar_ID=9}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Royo, P., Delgado, L., Perez-Batlle, M., Barrado, C. & Prats, X. 2011 (May). Depart and Approach Procedures for UAS in a VFR Environment. In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems (ATACCS’2011).. Garcia, E., Majumdar, A., Palanque, P., Pasquini, A., Saez, F.J. & Winckler, M. (Ed.) pp. 27-37. HALA! SESAR network, IRIT Press, Toulouse, France, France.
Keywords: UAS, landing take-off operations, automation.
Abstract: This paper assesses the depart and approach operations of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in one of the most challenging scenarios: when flying under Visual Flight Rules (VFR). Inspired by some existing procedures for (manned) general aviation, some automatic and predefined procedures for UAS are proposed. Hence, standardized paths to specific waypoints close to the airport are defined for depart operations, just before starting the navigation phase. Conversely, and for the approach maneuvers, it is foreseen a first integration into a holding pattern near the landing runway (ideally above it) followed by a standard VFR airfield traffic pattern. This paper discusses the advantages of these operations which aim at minimizing possible conflicts with other existing aircraft while reducing the Pilot-in-Command workload. Finally, some preliminary simulations are shown where these procedures have been successfully tested with simulated surrounding traffic.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{pastor_11_depart,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Pablo Royo and Luis Delgado and Marc Perez-Batlle and Cristina Barrado and Xavier Prats},
      editor = {Eduardo Garcia and Arnab Majumdar and Philippe Palanque and Alberto Pasquini and Francisco Javier Saez and Marco Winckler},
      title = {Depart and Approach Procedures for UAS in a VFR Environment},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems (ATACCS’2011).},
      publisher = {IRIT Press},
      year = {2011},
      month = {May},
      pages = {27-37},
      address = {Toulouse, France, France},
      organization =  {HALA! SESAR network}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Royo, P., Santamaria, E., Pérez-Batlle, M., Barrado, C. & Prats, X. 2011 (May). An Architecture to Automate UAS Operations in Non-segregated Airspace. In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems (ATACCS’2011).. Garcia, E., Majumdar, A., Palanque, P., Pasquini, A., Saez, F.J. & Winckler, M. (Ed.) pp. 5-16. IRIT Press, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain). Best paper award.
Keywords: UAS automation, SOA architectures, Airspace integration.
Abstract: Technology evolution in the field of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) will affect the Air Traffic Management (ATM) performance regarding to new military and civil applications. UAS, as new airspace users, will represent new challenges and opportunities to design the ATM system of the future. The goal of this future ATM network is to keep intact (or improve) the network in terms of security, safety, capacity and efficiency level. On the other hand, most UAS are, at present, designed for military purposes and very few civil applications have been developed mainly because the lack of a regulation basis concerning their certification, airworthiness and operations. Therefore, UAS operations have always been solutions highly dependent on the mission to be accomplished and on the scenario of flight. The generalized development of UAS applications is still limited by the absence of systems that support the development of the actual operations. Moreover, the systematic development of UAS missions leads to many other operational risks that need to be addressed. All this elements may delay, increase the risk and cost in the implementation of a new UAS application.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{pastor_11_architecture,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Pablo Royo and Eduard Santamaria and Marc Pérez-Batlle and Cristina Barrado and Xavier Prats},
      editor = {Eduardo Garcia and Arnab Majumdar and Philippe Palanque and Alberto Pasquini and Francisco Javier Saez and Marco Winckler},
      title = {An Architecture to Automate UAS Operations in Non-segregated Airspace},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems (ATACCS’2011).},
      publisher = {IRIT Press},
      year = {2011},
      month = {May},
      pages = {5-16},
      address = {Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)},
      note = {Best paper award}
      }
  
Royo, P., Pastor, E., Solé, M., Lema, J.M., López, J. & Barrado, C. 2011 (April). UAS architecture for forest fire remote sensing. In Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Remote Sensing of Environment. Sydney (Australia).
Keywords: Robotics, Forest Fire, Service Architecture, UAS, Distributed Architecture
Abstract: This paper presents the hardware/software architecture of the Sky-Eye UAS prototype. In particular it details the hardware of the prototype, its operational concept and the software avionics architecture. The software architecture is named UAS Service Abstraction Layer (USAL) and consists on the set of standard services required for most UAS missions. The USAL is a distributed architecture which follows the publish subscribe communication paradigm, allowing fast development of new functionalities. We describe the USAL services required to properly manage the remote sensing mission of hot spot detection. This includes the sensor management, data storage, communications, image processing, flight plan management and mission management.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{royo_11_UAS,
      author = {Pablo Royo and Enric Pastor and Marc Solé and José M. Lema and Juan López and Cristina Barrado},
      title = {UAS architecture for forest fire remote sensing},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Remote Sensing of Environment},
      year = {2011},
      month = {April},
      address = {Sydney (Australia)}
      }
  
Salamí, E., Barrado, C., Pérez-Batlle, M., Royo, P., Santamaria, E. & Pastor, E. 2011 (April). Fast Geolocation for Hot Spot Detection. In Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Remote Sensing of Environment. Sydney (Australia).
Keywords: Forest fire, Photogrammetry, Vision, Airborne In situ Measurements, UAS
Abstract: In this paper we present an algorithm for fast geolocation of hot spots from an infrared image taken from an unmanned aircraft. The input data are the position and attitude of the aerial platform, and the digital elevation model of the terrain. The down faced orientation of the camera and the stable flight of the aircraft contribute to reduce the number of floating point operations needed for geolocation. These simplifications will result on an increase of the accumulated errors, added to those of the measuring instruments. In the paper we will compare the geolocation results of the complete computational model with the proposed fast model.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{salami_11_fast,
      author = {Esther Salamí and Cristina Barrado and Marc Pérez-Batlle and Pablo Royo and Eduard Santamaria and Enric Pastor},
      title = {Fast Geolocation for Hot Spot Detection},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Remote Sensing of Environment},
      year = {2011},
      month = {April},
      address = {Sydney (Australia)}
      }
  
Guerrero-Ibañez, A., Contreras-Castillo, J., Buenrostro, R., Barba-Marti, A. & Reyes-Muñoz, A. 2010. A policy-based multi-agent management approach for intelligent traffic-light control. In Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2010 IEEE. pp. 694-699. IEEE,
Keywords:
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{guerrero2010policy,
      author = {Guerrero-Ibañez, A. and Contreras-Castillo, J. and Buenrostro, R. and Barba-Marti, A. and Reyes-Muñoz, A.},
      title = {A policy-based multi-agent management approach for intelligent traffic-light control},
      booktitle = {Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2010 IEEE},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {694--699},
      organization =  {IEEE},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5548133},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IVS.2010.5548133}
      }
  
Guerrero-Ibañez, A., Flores-Cortés, C., Barba, A. & Reyes, A. 2010. A quality of service-enabled pricing approach for heterogeneous wireless access networks. In Intelligent Environments (IE), 2010 Sixth International Conference on. pp. 231-236. IEEE,
Keywords:
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{guerrero2010quality,
      author = {Guerrero-Ibañez, Antonio and Flores-Cortés, Carlos and Barba, Antoni and Reyes, Angelica},
      title = {A quality of service-enabled pricing approach for heterogeneous wireless access networks},
      booktitle = {Intelligent Environments (IE), 2010 Sixth International Conference on},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {231--236},
      organization =  {IEEE},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5673734},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IE.2010.49}
      }
  
Prats, X., Puig, V. & Quevedo, J. 2010 (Dec). Optimisation of site-specific noise abatement departure procedures. In Proceedings of the 9th Innovative Research Workshop & Exhibition. pp. 127-134. Eurocontrol, Brétigny-sur-Orge (France).
Keywords: Aircraft noise abatement, aircraft trajectory optimization, multi-objective optimization
Abstract: The optimisation of aircraft noise abatement procedures involves several conflicting factors, including several noise sensitive locations and aircraft operating costs. This paper presents some strategies that aim at better assessing these compromises when optimising site-specific noise abatement departure procedures that take into account the actual populated areas, their type and distribution, the hour of the day where the trajectory is supposed to be flown and the aircraft type. A special emphasis is given to the fairness of the trajectory with regards to the populated areas exposed to noise. In this context, a noise annoyance deviation index is proposed as optimisation objective. Moreover a multi-objective optimisation strategy, employing goal, lexicographic-egalitarian and hierarchical optimisation techniques is presented. An illustrative example is given with the design of the East departures at Girona airport, Catalonia (Spain). Results point out how the noise annoyance impact of current operational procedures can be significantly reduced by the optimised trajectories and show, as well, an important dependency on the type of aircraft and the hour of the day
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_10_optimisation,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Vicenç Puig and Joseba Quevedo},
      title = {Optimisation of site-specific noise abatement departure procedures},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th Innovative Research Workshop & Exhibition},
      publisher = {Eurocontrol},
      year = {2010},
      month = {Dec},
      pages = {127-134},
      address = {Brétigny-sur-Orge (France)}
      }
  
Quevedo, J., Puig, V., Escobet, T., Pérez, R., Prats, X. & García, C. 2010 (Nov). Actividades en control y supervisión inteligente del Grupo de Sistemas Avanzados de Control (SAC) de la Universidad Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). In Actas del VI Simposio CEA de Control Inteligente. Comité Español de Automática (CEA), La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain). (in Spanish).
Keywords:
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{quevedo_10_actividades,
      author = {Joseba Quevedo and Vicenç Puig and Teresa Escobet and Ramon Pérez and Xavier Prats and Claudia García},
      title = {Actividades en control y supervisión inteligente del Grupo de Sistemas Avanzados de Control (SAC) de la Universidad Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)},
      booktitle = {Actas del VI Simposio CEA de Control Inteligente},
      publisher = {Comité Español de Automática (CEA)},
      year = {2010},
      month = {Nov},
      address = {La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)},
      note = {(in Spanish)}
      }
  
Lema, J.M., Royo, P., Pastor, E., López, J., Santamaria, E., Delgado, L., Barrado, C., la Cour-Harbo, A. & Bisgaard, M. 2010 (Sep). Virtual Autopilot System for Helicopters UAV missions. In Proceedings of the 27th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS). ICAS, Nice, France.
Keywords: UAV, autopilots
Abstract: Selecting the right autopilot to be integrated in a given UAS to develop a certain mission is a complex task because none of them are mutually compatible. Moving from one autopilot to another may imply redesign form scratch all the remaining avionics in the UAS. This paper presents the Virtual Autopilot System (VAS), an intermediate subsystem added to the UAS platform to abstract the autopilot from the mission and payload controller in a UAS. The VAS is a system that on one side interacts with the selected autopilot and therefore needs to be adapted to its peculiarities. On the other side, interacts with all the architecture offering standardized information of the autopilot, and consuming mission and payload orders.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{lema_10_virtual,
      author = {Juan Manuel Lema and Pablo Royo and Enric Pastor and Juan López and Eduard Santamaria and Luis Delgado and Cristina Barrado and Anders la Cour-Harbo and Morten Bisgaard},
      title = {Virtual Autopilot System for Helicopters UAV missions},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 27th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS)},
      year = {2010},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Nice, France},
      organization =  {ICAS},
      url = {http://www.icas2010.com/}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Prats, X. & Delgado, L. 2010 (Sep). An Assessment for UAS Traffic Awareness Operations. In Proceedings of the 27th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS). ICAS, Nice, France.
Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Systems, UAS Operations, ATM Integration
Abstract: Technology evolution in the field of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) will affect the Air Traffic Management (ATM) performance regarding to new military and civil applications. UAS, as new airspace users, will represent new challenges and opportunities to design the ATM system of the future. The goal of this future ATM network is to keep intact (or improve) the network in terms of security, safety, capacity and efficiency level. On the other hand, most UAS are, at present, designed for military purposes and very few civil applications have been developed mainly because the lack of a regulation basis concerning their certification, airworthiness and operations. Therefore, UAS operations have always been solutions highly dependent on the mission to be accomplished and on the scenario of flight. The generalized development of UAS applications is still limited by the absence of systems that support the development of the actual operations. Moreover, the systematic development of UAS missions leads to many other operational risks that need to be addressed. All this elements may delay, increase the risk and cost in the implementation of a new UAS application.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{pastor_10_assessment,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Xavier Prats and Luis Delgado},
      title = {An Assessment for UAS Traffic Awareness Operations},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 27th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS)},
      year = {2010},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Nice, France},
      organization =  {ICAS}
      }
  
Delgado, L. & Prats, X. 2010 (Jun). An Optimisation Framework for Aircraft Operators Dealing with Capacity-Demand Imbalances in SESAR. In Proceedings of the 4rd International Congress on Research in Air Transportation (ICRAT). pp. 339-346. EUROCONTROL / FAA, Budapest (Hungary).
Keywords: Air Traffic Management (ATM), Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM), capacity-demand, trajectory optimization
Abstract: This paper presents a framework for the negotiation phase that is foreseen in the new operational concept proposed in the Single European Sky Research (SESAR) program. In particular, this paper describes a possible strategy for the airspace users in order to deal with the Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) process that is expected in this future scenario. In the SESAR scenario, airspace users will become owners of their trajectories and they will be responsible to solve possible mismatches between capacity and demand in a particular airspace sector. The aim of this strategy is to improve the efficiency in the CDM process by computing the different operational costs associated to different solutions that may solve a particular demand-capacity imbalance in the airspace. This will allow them to optimise their operating costs while reducing fuel consumption and therefore being more environmentally friendly. Some suggestions have already been done for the CDM mechanism, for instance the use of auctions. However, the different options that aircraft operators might use have not yet been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, the authors propose an optimisation framework for aircraft operators aimed at computing 4D trajectories with time constraints to deal, in this way, with possible airspace regulations. Once a nominal flight plan and a potential regulation is known, it is suggested to compute several possible alternative flight plans (including rerouting, but also altitude and speed profiles) that may solve the capacity-demand problem. If more than one regulation is applied to the flight, a tree of options is subsequently computed. The cost of each optimised the option is also calculated in order to allow the airspace users to initiate the negotiation process with other airlines. Finally, a preliminary example is given at the end of this paper in order to better illustrate the proposed methodology.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{delgado_10_optimisation,
      author = {Luis Delgado and Xavier Prats},
      title = {An Optimisation Framework for Aircraft Operators Dealing with Capacity-Demand Imbalances in SESAR},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 4rd International Congress on Research in Air Transportation (ICRAT)},
      year = {2010},
      month = {Jun},
      pages = {339--346},
      address = {Budapest (Hungary)},
      organization =  {EUROCONTROL / FAA}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Prats, X., Royo, P., Delgado, L. & Santamaria, E. 2010 (Mar). UAS pilot support for departure, approach and airfield operations. In Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference. IEEE, Big Sky, Montana (USA).
Keywords: UAS, UAV, Humman Machine Interface (HMI), integration to civil airspace, flight operations
Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have great po- tential to be used in a wide variety of civil applications such as environmental applications, emergency situations, surveil- lance tasks and more. The development of Flight Control Systems (FCS) coupled with the availability of other Com- mercial Off-The Shelf (COTS) components is enabling the introduction of UAS into the civil market. The sophistication of existing FCS is also making these systems accessible to end users with little aeronautics expertise. However, much work remains to be done to deliver systems that can be prop- erly integrated in standard aeronautical procedures used by manned aviation. In previous research advances have been proposed in the flight plan capabilities by offering semantically much richer constructs than those present in most current UAS autopi- lots[1]. The introduced flight plan is organized as a set of stages, each one corresponding to a different flight phase. Each stage contains a structured collection of legs inspired by current practices in Area Navigation (RNAV[2], [3]). How- ever, the most critical parts of any flight, the depart and ap- proach operations in a integrated airspace remain mostly un- explored. This paper introduces an assessment of both operations for UAS operating in VFR and IFR modes. Problems and poten- tial solutions are proposed, as well as an automating strategy that should greatly reduce pilot workload. Although the final objective is a full autonomous operation, the pilot is always kept in the control loop and therefore HMI aspects are also considered.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{pastor_10_uas,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Xavier Prats and Pablo Royo and Luis Delgado and Eduard Santamaria},
      title = {UAS pilot support for departure, approach and airfield operations},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference},
      publisher = {IEEE},
      year = {2010},
      month = {Mar},
      address = {Big Sky, Montana (USA)}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Santamaria, E., Royo, P., López, J. & Barrado, C. 2010 (Mar). On the Design of a UAV Flight Plan Monitoring and Edition System. In Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference. AIAA/IEEE, Big Sky, Montana (USA).
Keywords:
Abstract: his paper addresses various aspects of the de- sign and development of the pilot interface for the exploita- tion of highly advanced flight plan capabilities specifically designed for Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). This flight plan capabilities are built on top a flexible and reusable hard- ware/software architecture designed to facilitate the develop- ment of UAS-based applications. This flexibility is organized into an user-parameterizable UAS Service Abstraction Layer (USAL). The USAL defines a collection of standard services are their interrelations as a basic starting point for further de- velopment by UAS users. Previous research presented the advanced flying capabilities of a UAS as an extension of the Flight Control System (FCS) functionalities. Assuming a UAS with a FCS that ensures safe and stable maneuvers, we complement it with a highly capable flight plan management system. USAL flight plan is characterized by offering semantically much richer constructs than those present in most current UAS autopilots, which rely on simple lists of waypoints. This list of waypoints approach has several important limita- tions: it is difficult to specify complex trajectories and it does not support constructs such as conditional forks or iterations, small changes may imply having to deal with a considerable amount of waypoints and it provides no mechanism for adapt- ing to mission time circumstances. To address these issues a new flight plan specification mechanism is proposed, that incorporates a leg concept extended to accommodate higher level constructs for specifying iterations and forks. Additional leg types, referred to as parametric leg, are also introduced. The trajectory defined by a parametric leg is au- tomatically generated as a function of mission variables, en- abling dynamic behavior and providing a very valuable means for adapting the flight to the mission evolution. Another level of adaption is provided by the conditions governing the decision-making in intersection legs and the finalization of iterative legs. In this work we will focus on the development of the pilot interface for the exploitation of the introduced flight plan ca- pabilities. The interface design requirements address an increase level of automated operation and support to react to unexpected requirements due to mission changes. Therefore, this interaction includes the available mechanisms to update the flight-plan according to UAS mission requirements, skip parts of it, react to operational contingencies, etc.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{pastor_10_design,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Eduard Santamaria and Pablo Royo and Juan López and Cristina Barrado},
      title = {On the Design of a UAV Flight Plan Monitoring and Edition System},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference},
      year = {2010},
      month = {Mar},
      address = {Big Sky, Montana (USA)},
      organization =  {AIAA/IEEE}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Sole, M., Lopez, J., Royo, P. & Barrado, C. 2010 (Mar). Helicopter-based Wildfire Monitoring System Software Architecture. In Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference. AIAA/IEEE, Big Sky, Montana (USA).
Keywords: middleware, avionics, remote sensing
Abstract: This work introduces a flexible and reusable archi- tecture designed to facilitate the development of remote sens- ing applications. Based on it, we are developing a helicopter system, called Red-Eye, devoted to the detection, control and analysis of wild land forest fires in the Mediterranean area. The design of the proposed system is composed of five main components. Each component will work collaboratively to constitute a platform of high added value. The general archi- tecture designed for wildfire monitoring is being tailored for two relevant objectives within the particular Mediterranean scenario: tactical day/night fire front evolution, and post-fire hot-spot detection. The generalized integration of monitoring vehicles with the operation of other aerial resources (attack helicopter and air- planes) is an unsolved problem, both technically and method- ologically. However, the operation of a monitoring helicopter during certain very well identified phases of the extinction process in highly plausible. High-level strategic monitor- ing is possible because no-conflicts will appear due to dif- ferent flight levels; however, low-level tactical monitoring is a source of potentially dangerous in-flight traffic conflicts. In addition to monitoring the fire front evolution, detection of remaining post-fire hot-spots located at the perimeter of fire is the main application that has been foreseen. Just after a fire front is contained or even during the days following the fire extinction, the monitoring tasks have to be maintained because of the danger of fire reactivation. The cost of moni- toring with ground teams or aerial means it is very expensive and consumes resources needed in other fronts or possibly concurrent fires. However, a helicopter equipped with ther- mal cameras, can flight over the area and generate a map of hot spots with higher precision at a smaller cost. It is cru- cial in this application that the hot spots are reported imme- diately to avoid having ground brigades waiting for data for too long. Also, it is important to feedback the information in such a way it can be effectively consumed, not forcing ground brigades to walk around the forest without a clear operational scheme. Based on a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) [1] a heliborne hot-spot detection system is being developed. This pa- per describes the global architecture of the system, includ- ing the air segment, the ground control segment, and the in- terface with the squads operating on the fire area, etc. We also demonstrate how the available pre-defined modules in the SOA architecture have been reused to design this partic- ular application, the additional subsystems required to imple- ment specific hot-spot mission requirements, and the overall system / end-user interface.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{lopez_10_software,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Marc Sole and Juan Lopez and Pablo Royo and Cristina Barrado},
      title = {Helicopter-based Wildfire Monitoring System Software Architecture},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference},
      year = {2010},
      month = {Mar},
      address = {Big Sky, Montana (USA)},
      organization =  {AIAA/IEEE},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AERO.2010.5446807}
      }
  
Solé, M., Pastor, E., Pérez, M., Santamaria, E. & Barrado, C. 2010 (Jan). Dynamic Flight Plan Design for UAS Remote Sensing Applications. In Proceedings of the 48th AIAAAerospace Sciences Meeting. AIAA, Orlando, Florida (USA).
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, distributed architecture, flight plan, mission specification
Abstract: The development of Flight Control Systems (FCS) coupled with the availability of other Commercial Off-The Shelf (COTS) components is enabling the introduction of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the civil market. UAS have great potential to be used in a wide variety of civil applications such as environmental applications, emergency situations, surveillance tasks and more. In general, they are specially well suited for the so-called D-cube operations (Dirty, Dull or Dangerous). Current technology greatly facilitates the construction of UAS. Sophisticated flight con- trol systems also make them accessible to end users with little aeronautical expertise. How- ever, we believe that for its successful introduction into the civil market, progress needs to be made to deliver systems able to perform a wide variety of missions with minimal reconfiguration and with reduced operational costs. Most current flight plan specification mechanisms consist in a simple list of waypoints, an approach that has important limitations. This paper proposes a new specification mech- anism with semantically richer constructs that will enable the end user to specify more complex flight plans. The proposed formalism provides means for specifying iterative be- havior, conditional branching and other constructs to dynamically adapt the flight path to mission circumstances. Collaborating with the FCS, a new module on-board the UAS will be in charge of executing these plans. This research also studies how the proposed flight plan structure can be tailored to the specific needs of remote sensing. For these type of applications well structured and efficient area and perimeter scanning is mandatory. In this paper we introduce several strategies focused to optimize the scanning process for tactical or mini UAS. The paper also presents a prototype implementation of this module and the results obtained in simulations.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{sole_10_dynamic,
      author = {Marc Solé and Enric Pastor and Marcos Pérez and Eduard Santamaria and Cristina Barrado},
      title = {Dynamic Flight Plan Design for UAS Remote Sensing Applications},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 48th AIAAAerospace Sciences Meeting},
      year = {2010},
      month = {Jan},
      address = {Orlando, Florida (USA)},
      organization =  {AIAA}
      }
  
Sariñena, D., Barrado, C., Pastor, E. & Tristancho, J. 2009 (Oct). NextGen Trajectory Approaches with Air-Air Negotiation Protocol. In Proceedings of the AIAA/IEEE 28th Digital Avionics Systems Conference. Florida (USA).
Keywords: ATM, protocols, NextGen, SESAR
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{sarinena_09_nextgen,
      author = {D. Sariñena and Cristina Barrado and Enric Pastor and Joshua Tristancho},
      title = {NextGen Trajectory Approaches with Air-Air Negotiation Protocol},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the AIAA/IEEE 28th Digital Avionics Systems Conference},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Oct},
      address = {Florida (USA)}
      }
  
Tristancho, J., Barrado, C. & Pastor, E. 2009 (Oct). A Telemetry Modeling for Intelligent UAV Monitoring. In Proceedings of the AIAA/IEEE 28th Digital Avionics Systems Conference. Florida (USA).
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, telemetry, avionics
Abstract: An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, UAV for short, is able to fly autonomously during all phases of flight, but has to be monitored from an operator station. In this article a better avionic system is proposed to optimize this process reducing the channel usage without quality degradation. The information related to the aircraft position is called telemetry. This early avionic system is tested in the longitudinal mode of a high wing model unmanned aircraft system in an open source flight simulator.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{tristancho_09_telemetry,
      author = {Joshua Tristancho and Cristina Barrado and Enric Pastor},
      title = {A Telemetry Modeling for Intelligent UAV Monitoring},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the AIAA/IEEE 28th Digital Avionics Systems Conference},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Oct},
      address = {Florida (USA)},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/DASC.2009.5347421}
      }
  
Delgado, L. & Prats, X. 2009 (Sep). En-route Speed Reduction for the Management of ATFM Delays. In Proceedings of the 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference. AIAA, Hilton Head, South Carolina (USA).
Keywords: Air Traffic Management (ATM), Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM), speed adjustments
Abstract: In this paper a new concept aimed at better dealing with delays caused by regulations is presented. Inspired in future 4D trajectories, where a time constraint can be applied at each way-point, it is proposed to spread the total delay imposed by a regulation over the trajectory that goes from the departing airport to the regulated airspace. Given a nominal cruise speed, there exist a set of possible lower speeds that allow a longer flight (and then, a cumulative flight delay) with the same or less fuel consumption if compared with the nominal situation. In this way, the aircraft that has been delayed can consider to take-off on time and loose this time by flying slower and requiring the same or less fuel than initially planed. Besides the positive environmental impact, the airliner can bet that finally the regulation at the congested airspace may be not applied and being the departure on time, the delay can be absorbed more easily in flight with a minimal or null fuel consumption increase. Finally, this concept is applied to some example flights.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{delgado_09_en-route,
      author = {Luis Delgado and Xavier Prats},
      title = {En-route Speed Reduction for the Management of ATFM Delays},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference},
      publisher = {AIAA},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Hilton Head, South Carolina (USA)}
      }
  
Delgado, L. & Prats, X. 2009 (Sep). Fuel consumption assessment for speed variation concepts during the cruise phase. In Proceedings of the Conference on Air Traffic Management (ATM) Economics. German Aviation Research Society and University of Belgrade (Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering), Belgrade (Serbia).
Keywords: Air Traffic Management (ATM), Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM), speed adjustments, fuel costs
Abstract: In recent years, some research studies in Air Traffic Management (ATM) have proposed the idea of adjusting the speed of aircraft for several applications, like for instance, conflict resolution, 4D trajectory management, and airspace capacity and demand balance. In this paper an initial assessment on how this kind of speed variations may affect to fuel consumption is presented. Only the cruise phase is considered and the relationships existing among different variables such as the speed, the flight level, the aircraft mass etc. are arisen. In addition, it is emphasised in what conditions a speed reduction strategy can be implemented without penalising the fuel consuamption. Thence, it is shown that there is a range of speeds, lower than the nominal cruise speed, that do not suppose an increase in fuel consumption regarding the nominal block fuel. However, a certain sensibility with the selected Cost Index is identified. High values of the Cost Index allow more speed margin without a negative fuel impact, while low values of the Cost Index reduce the impact on fuel consumption in the case the nominal cruise speed is increased.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{delgado_09_fuel,
      author = {Luis Delgado and Xavier Prats},
      title = {Fuel consumption assessment for speed variation concepts during the cruise phase},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Conference on Air Traffic Management (ATM) Economics},
      publisher = {German Aviation Research Society and University of Belgrade (Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering)},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Belgrade (Serbia)},
      url = {http://www.garsonline.de/Downloads/090910/Papers/PaperDelgado0&0Prats.pdf}
      }
  
Delgado, L., Prats, X., Royo, P. & Pastor, E. 2009 (Sep). An Assessment for UAS Depart and Approach Operations. In Proceedings of the 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference. AIAA, Hilton Head, South Carolina (USA).
Keywords: UAS, UAV, integration to civil airspace, flight operations
Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have great potential to be used in a wide variety of civil applications such as environmental applications, emergency situations, surveillance tasks and more. The development of Flight Control Systems (FCS) coupled with the availability of other Commercial Off-The Shelf (COTS) components is enabling the introduction of UAS into the civil market. The sophistication of existing FCS is also making these systems accessible to end users with little aeronautics expertise. However, muchwork remains to be done to deliver systems that can be properly integrated in standard aeronautical procedures used by manned aviation.
In previous research advances have been proposed in the f ight plan capabilities by offering semantically much richer constructs than those present in most current UAS autopilots. The introduced fight plan is organized as a set of stages, each one corresponding to a different fight phase. Each stage contains a structured collection of legs inspired by current practices in Area Navigation (RNAV). However, the most critical parts of any f ight, the depart and approach operations in a integrated airspace remain mostly unexplored.
This paper introduces an assessment of both operations for UAS operating in VFR and IFR modes. Problems and potential solutions are proposed, as well as an automating strategy that should greatly reduce pilot workload. Although the final objective is a full autonomous operation, the pilot is always kept in the control loop and therefore HMI aspects are also considered.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{delgado_09_assessment,
      author = {Luis Delgado and Xavier Prats and Pablo Royo and Enric Pastor},
      title = {An Assessment for UAS Depart and Approach Operations},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference},
      publisher = {AIAA},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Hilton Head, South Carolina (USA)}
      }
  
Prats, X., Puig, V., Quevedo, J. & Nejjari, F. 2009 (Sep). Equitable noise abatement departure procedures. In Proceedings of the 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference. AIAA, Hilton Head, South Carolina (USA).
Keywords: Aircraft noise abatement, aircraft trajectory optimization, multi-objective optimization
Abstract: As an extension of previous research, this paper deals with the optimisation of noise abatement departure procedures where the perceived annoyance at different sensitive locations is modelled and chosen as optimisation criterion. In this work, the authors present an improved method for facing the multi-criteria nature of the problem where the fairness of the optimal solutions is assessed. Thence, the Rawlsian or egalitarian criterion is defined and used to guarantee this fairness among all objectives. Moreover, this criterion is enhanced with an iterative lexicographic optimisation methodology which, in turn, satisfies the Pareto efficiency condition of the final solution. An application example is analysed, as a illustrative case, based on a departure of runway 02 of Girona airport in Catalonia (Spain).
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_09_equitable,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Vicenç Puig and Joseba Quevedo and Fatiha Nejjari},
      title = {Equitable noise abatement departure procedures},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference},
      publisher = {AIAA},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Hilton Head, South Carolina (USA)}
      }
  
Santamaria, E., Pérez-Batlle, M., Ramírez, J., Barrado, C. & Pastor, E. 2009 (Sep). Mission Formalism for UAS Based Navaid Flight Inspections. In Proceedings of the 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference. AIAA, Hilton Head, South Carolina (USA).
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, flight inspection, rnav
Abstract: In previous work UAS have been proposed as the platform of choice for performing Navaid Flight Inspections. It is expected that the use of these platforms will significantly reduce time and monetary costs, but a number of issues must be addressed for UAS to become a real alternative. An important requirement for flight inspection missions is to minimize their impact on other air traffic. In this paper we focus on provisioning UAS with a level of operational agility comparable to that provided by a human on-board pilot. Planning to avoid conflicts, the unmanned vehicle must be able to momentarily interrupt and later on resume the inspection operations in an automated manner. In this paper we analyze the operational requirements for a specific inspection mission and design a flight plan for its execution. Afterwards, a flight plan specification formalism, that will enable us to perform the inspection mission in a highly automated manner, is presented. Finally, we demonstrate how the flight plan design is translated to a suitable representation using this formalism and how the required operational agility is achieved.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{santamaria_09_mission,
      author = {Edurard Santamaria and Marcos Pérez-Batlle and Jorge Ramírez and Cristina Barrado and Enric Pastor},
      title = {Mission Formalism for UAS Based Navaid Flight Inspections},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference},
      publisher = {AIAA},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Hilton Head, South Carolina (USA)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/8486}
      }
  
Santamaria, E., Royo, P., Barrado, C. & Pastor, E. 2009 (Aug). An Integrated Mission Management System for UAS Civil Applications. In Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference. AIAA, Chicago, Illinois (USA).
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, flight plan, mission, contingencies
Abstract: This paper presents an Integrated Mission Management System for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). The system consists in a number of mission and flight software modules that control the UAS path and the operation of its on-board payload in a coordinated manner. The overall system is called UAS Service Architecture Layer (USAL). An important requirement of the system is that it should be highly adaptable to perform a broad range of civil missions. To achieve this goal the flight plan and mission specifications are separated from the modules that perform its execution. The flight plan is described using a formalism specifically designed for UAS civil applications. State Chart XML is used to provide a state based model for the UAS behavior during the mission. USAL offers additional capabilities oriented to the automated reaction to contingencies. This paper describes the alternative airfield specification mechanism and the contingency management architecture employed in the USAL.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{santamaria_09_integrated,
      author = {Eduard Santamaria and Pablo Royo and Cristina Barrado and Enric Pastor},
      title = {An Integrated Mission Management System for UAS Civil Applications},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference},
      publisher = {AIAA},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Aug},
      address = {Chicago, Illinois (USA)}
      }
  
Salamí, E., Pedre, S., Borenzstejn, P., Barrado, C., Stoliar, A. & Pastor, E. 2009 (Jul). Decision Support System for Hot Spot Detection. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Intelligent Environments. Castelldefels (Spain).
Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Systems, Real-Time, Image Processing, Fire Fighting
Abstract: Forest fires are an important problem for many countries. Prevention, surveillance and extinguishing tasks are costly and sometimes risky. This paper focuses on the surveillance of the fire embers once the fire is extinguished. This is a post-fire task which requires an important amount of terrestrial resources, especially if the weather conditions may provoke the resume of the fire. We propose the use of an Unmanned Aerial System to support fire fighters decisions. Our proposal is to develop an intelligent system which can make or suggest tactical decisions to firemen on hot-spot surveillance. The Unmanned Aerial System consists on a small unmanned aircraft, a ground control station and several personal devices for the firemen on ground. All system elements are wireless connected. On board data acquisition and fast processing, together with an intelligent transmission and interpretation are the targets of the system.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{salami_09_decision,
      author = {Esther Salamí and S. Pedre and P. Borenzstejn and Cristina Barrado and A. Stoliar and Enric Pastor},
      title = {Decision Support System for Hot Spot Detection},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Intelligent Environments},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Jul},
      address = {Castelldefels (Spain)}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Barrado, C., Royo, P., López, J. & Santamaria, E. 2009 (May). UAV Architectures for Civil Missions. In Proceedings of the 33rd International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, ISRSE'09. Stresa (Italy).
Keywords:
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{pastor_09_uav,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Cristina Barrado and Pablo Royo and Juan López and Eduard Santamaria},
      title = {UAV Architectures for Civil Missions},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 33rd International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, ISRSE'09},
      year = {2009},
      month = {May},
      address = {Stresa (Italy)}
      }
  
Salamí, E., Pastor, E. & Barrado, C. 2009 (May). Near Remote Sensing for Tactical Earth Protection. In Proceedings of the 33rd International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment ISRSE'09. Stresa (Italy).
Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Systems, Airborne Remote Sensing, Image Processing, Forest Fire Management
Abstract: In this paper we present how to use an Unmanned Aerial System in remote sensing. The system is specifically designed for forest fire management, as a support tool for the Fire Services to improve their tactical decisions. The system payload includes two cameras: a thermal camera and a visual camera. A simple image processing algorithm is applied to the thermal images in order to detect hot areas. In case of detecting a hot spot, it raises an event and notifies the geographical position of the spot, so that the firemen manager can know the hot spot position as soon as possible. On demand, the system also provides the visual image of the area with the shape of the detected hot spot marked on it. The visual images of the surroundings of the fire can help experts to discard false positives and to make faster and more accurate decisions.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{salami_09_near,
      author = {Esther Salamí and Enric Pastor and Cristina Barrado},
      title = {Near Remote Sensing for Tactical Earth Protection},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 33rd International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment ISRSE'09},
      year = {2009},
      month = {May},
      address = {Stresa (Italy)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/7071}
      }
  
López, J., Royo, P., Barrado, C. & Pastor, E. 2009 (Apr). Applying Marea Middleware to UAS Communications. In Proceedings of the AIAA Infotech@Aerospace Conference and AIAA Unmanned Unlimited Conference 2009. Seattle, Washington (USA).
Keywords: middleware, communications, UAV
Abstract: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are increasing their communication subsystems complexity as they are using several data links both for redundancy and for tacking with different communication requirements: different ranges, bandwidth, power consumption or cost. Inside the airframe a similar tendency with respect to communications is appearing. Modern digital avionics are mainly implemented as distributed computing architectures. This work describes Marea, a middleware specifically designed to fulfill UAS communications and their application to the design of complex distributed UAS avionics.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{lopez_09_applying,
      author = {Juan López and Pablo Royo and Cristina Barrado and Enric Pastor},
      title = {Applying Marea Middleware to UAS Communications},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the AIAA Infotech@Aerospace Conference and AIAA Unmanned Unlimited Conference 2009},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Apr},
      address = {Seattle, Washington (USA)},
      url = {http://pdf.aiaa.org/preview/CDReadyMIA09_2070/PV2009_1914.pdf}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Barrado, C., Royo, P., López, J. & Santamaria, E. 2009 (Apr). An Architecture for the Development of Complex UAS Missions. In Proceedings of the AUVSI's Unmanned Systems Europe. La Spezia (Italy).
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, distributed architecture, middleware, flight plan, mission
Abstract: The generalized development of UAS complex applications are still limited by the absence of systems that support the implementation of the actual mission. UAS design faces the development of specific systems to control their desired flight-profile, sensor activation/configuration along the flight, data storage and eventually its transmission to the ground control. All this elements may delay and increase the risk and cost of the project. This paper introduces a flexible and reusable hardware/software architecture designed to facilitate the development of UAS-based complex applications. This flexibility is organized into a user-parameterizable UAS service abstraction layer (USAL). The USAL defines a collection of standard services are their interrelations as a basic starting point for further development by users. Functionalities like enhanced flight-plans, a mission control engine, data storage, communications management, etc. are offered. Additional services can be included according to requirements but all existing services and inter-service communication infrastructure can be exploited and tailored to specific needs. This approach reduces development times and risks, but at the same time gives the user higher levels of flexibility and permits the development of more ambitious applications.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{pastor_09_architecture,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Cristina Barrado and Pablo Royo and Juan López and Eduard Santamaria},
      title = {An Architecture for the Development of Complex UAS Missions},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the AUVSI's Unmanned Systems Europe},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Apr},
      address = {La Spezia (Italy)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/8917}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Barrado, C., Royo, P., López, J., Santamaria, E. & Prats, X. 2009 (Apr). An Architecture for the Seamless Integration of UAS Remote Sensing Missions. In Proceedings of the AIAA Unmanned...Unlimited Conference. AIAA, Seattle, WA.
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, distributed architecture, middleware, flight plan, mission, remote sensing
Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are slowing becoming efficient platforms that can be applied in scientific/commercial remote sensing applications. UAS may offer interesting benefits in terms of cost, flexibility, endurance, etc. On the other side, the complexity of developing a full UAS-system is currently limiting its practical application. Currently, only large organizations like NASA or NOAA have enough budget and infrastructure to develop such applications. Nowadays, UAS technology offers feasible technical solutions for airframes, flight control, communications, and a wide set of multi-spectrum sensors. However, the generalized development of remote sensing applications are still limited by the absence of systems that support the development of the actual UAS sensing mission. This paper introduces a flexible and reusable hardware/software architecture designed to facilitate the development of UAS-based remote sensing applications. This flexibility is organized into an user-parameterizable UAS Service Abstraction Layer (USAL). The USAL defines a collection of standard services are their interrelations as a basic starting point for further development by users. Functionalities like enhanced flight-plans, a mission control engine, data storage, communications management, etc. are offered. Additional services can be included according to requirements but all existing services and inter-service communication infrastructure can be exploited and tailored to specific needs. The overall USAL architecture is demonstrated by means of a wild land fire remote sensing application currently being developed to support fire fighters in the Mediterranean area.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{pastor_09_architecturea,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Cristina Barrado and Pablo Royo and Juan López and Eduard Santamaria and Xavier Prats},
      title = {An Architecture for the Seamless Integration of UAS Remote Sensing Missions},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the AIAA Unmanned...Unlimited Conference},
      publisher = {AIAA},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Apr},
      address = {Seattle, WA},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/8919}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Royo, P., Santamaria, E., Prats, X. & Barrado, C. 2009 (Apr). In-Flight Contingency Management for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. In Proceedings of the AIAA Unmanned...Unlimited Conference. AIAA, Seattle, Washington (USA).
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, flight management, mission management, contingency management
Abstract: Contingency analysis and reaction is a critical task to be carried out by any airplane to guarantee its safe operation in a non-segregated airspace. Pilot’s reactions to any kind of incidences that may occur in-flight, like engine malfunctions, loss of electrical power, hydraulic failure, unexpected weather, etc, will determine the fate of the flight. Nowadays, contingency reactions are mainly driven by the airplane manufacturer, with pre-analyzed contingency scenarios covered in the airplane documentation, and by ICAO’s rules as de- fined in the way flight plans should be prepared and landing alternatives implemented. Flight dispatching is the set of tasks related to flight preparation, such as load and balance, meteorology study and briefing, operational flight planning, contingency analysis and plan- ning, etc. However, managing contingencies on a UAS is a much more complex problem basically due to the automated nature of the vehicle and the lack of situational awareness that pilot’s in command should face. It is well known from the short history of UAS acci- dents that many of them are directly imputable to pilot errors when trying to manage an unexpected contingency. In this paper we will introduce an structured approach to automate contingency reac- tions in UAS. Our objective is to classify the contingency sources and up to a certain level abstract their impact on the system operation. Contingencies can be related to four wide aspects of the UAS operation: the flight itself, the mission, the payload, and the awareness systems. depending on the level of severity the contingency reaction may involve changing or canceling mission objectives to canceling the flight itself. In this way, the response to the contingency can be selected from a predefined limited catalog of automated reactions that may reconfigure the UAS operation in all aspects. This structured approximation is only possible because the contingency management is built upon a highly capable architecture called USAL (UAS Service Abstraction Layer) that offers capabilities to properly monitor contingencies and the flexibility to command pre-planned contingency reactions that may affect the flight operation and/or the mission carried out by the system. Contingency management becomes directly dependent upon the UAS dispatching pro- cess. USAL provides a dispatching methodology that identified the mission objectives, the UAV airframe and its various characteristics, the software services required for managing the flight and the mission, the sensor and computational payload, etc. All these elements are combined together in an iterative dispatching flow. The result of the process is the actual UAS configuration in terms of fuel, electrical system, payload configuration, flight plan, etc; but also detailed flight plan, alternative routes and landing sites, detailed USAL service architecture and the required contingency planning.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{pastor_09_in-flight,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Pablo Royo and Eduard Santamaria and Xavier Prats and Cristina Barrado},
      title = {In-Flight Contingency Management for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the AIAA Unmanned...Unlimited Conference},
      publisher = {AIAA},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Apr},
      address = {Seattle, Washington (USA)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/6849}
      }
  
Santamaria, E., Barrado, C. & Pastor, E. 2009 (Apr). An Event Driven Approach for Increasing UAS Mission Automation. In Proceedings of the AIAA Unmanned...Unlimited Conference. AIAA, Seattle, Washington (USA).
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, statecharts, scxml, mission
Abstract: UAS have great potential to be used in a wide variety of civil applications such as environmental applications, emergency situations, surveillance tasks and more. The development of Flight Control Systems (FCS) coupled with the availability of other Commercial Off-The Shelf (COTS) components is enabling the introduction of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the civil market. Despite the increasing number of COTS components becoming available, much effort is still required in order to make UAS a viable commercial solution for civil applications. We believe that for UAS to be successful in this context they must be flexible systems able to perform a wide variety of missions with minimal reconfiguration and reduced operational costs. In previous work, a flight plan specification formalism and its corresponding execution engine have been presented. These elements may suffice for simple applications but for more complex scenarios, we need a mechanism that specifies the vehicle behavior not only in flight plan terms but also taking into account payload operation. To provide this integration and, at the same time, increase the level of automation a mission management layer is added on top of the flight plan management facilities. The system flexibility requirement is satisfied by decoupling the mission description from its execution engine. This paper introduces an XML based mission specification mechanism for modeling the event-driven state-based behavior of the UAS. The Mission Manager is the software module responsible for its execution. The integration of the Mission Manager with other components that form part of our UAS distributed architecture is also described.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{santamaria_09_event,
      author = {Eduard Santamaria and Cristina Barrado and Enric Pastor},
      title = {An Event Driven Approach for Increasing UAS Mission Automation},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the AIAA Unmanned...Unlimited Conference},
      publisher = {AIAA},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Apr},
      address = {Seattle, Washington (USA)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/8632}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Barrado, C., Royo, P., López, J., Santamaria, E., Prats, X. & Pérez-Batlle, M. 2009 (Mar). Red-Eye: A Helicopter-Based Architecture for Tactical Wildfire Monitoring Strategies. In Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference. IEEE, Big Sky, Montana (USA).
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, distributed architecture, middleware, wildfire, remote sensing
Abstract: This work introduces a flexible and reusable architecture designed to facilitate the development of remote sensing applications. Based on it, we are developing a helicopter system, called Red-Eye, devoted to the detection, control and analysis of wild land forest fires in the Mediterranean area. The design of the proposed system is composed of five main components. Each component will work collaboratively to constitute a platform of high added value. The general architecture designed for wildfire monitoring is being tailored for two relevant objectives within the particular Mediterranean scenario: tactical day/night fire front evolution, and post-fire hot-spot detection. The generalized integration of monitoring vehicles with the operation of other aerial resources (attack helicopter and airplanes) is an unsolved problem, both technically and methodologically. However, the operation of a monitoring helicopter during certain very well identified phases of the extinction process in highly plausible. High-level strategic monitoring is possible because no-conflicts will appear due to different flight levels; however, low-level tactical monitoring is a source of potentially dangerous in-flight traffic conflicts. In addition to monitoring the fire front evolution, detection of remaining post-fire hot-spots located at the perimeter of fire is the main application that has been foreseen. Just after a fire front is contained or even during the days following the fire extinction, the monitoring tasks have to be maintained because of the danger of fire reactivation. The cost of monitoring with ground teams or aerial means it is very expensive and consumes resources needed in other fronts or possibly concurrent fires. However, a helicopter equippedwith thermal cameras, can flight over the area and generate a map of hot spots with higher precision at a smaller cost. It is crucial in this application that the hot spots are reported immediately to avoid having ground brigades waiting for data for too long. Also, it is important to feedback the information in such a way it can be effectively consumed, not forcing ground brigades to walk around the forest without a clear operational scheme. Based on a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) a heli-borne hot-spot detection system is being developed. This paper describes the global architecture of the system, including the air segment, the ground control segment, and the interface with the squads operating on the fire area, etc. We also demonstrate how the available pre-defined modules in the SOA architecture have been reused to design this particular application, the additional subsystems required to implement specific hot-spot mission requirements, and the overall system / end-user interface.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{pastor_09_red-eye,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Cristina Barrado and Pablo Royo and Juan López and Eduard Santamaria and Xavier Prats and Marcos Pérez-Batlle},
      title = {Red-Eye: A Helicopter-Based Architecture for Tactical Wildfire Monitoring Strategies},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference},
      publisher = {IEEE},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Mar},
      address = {Big Sky, Montana (USA)},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AERO.2009.4839637}
      }
  
Prats, X., Quevedo, J. & Puig, V. 2009 (Mar). Trajectory Management for Aircraft Noise Mitigation. In Proceedings of the ENRI International Workshop on ATM/CNS (EIWAC). pp. 45-54. Electronic Navigation Research Institute (ENRI), Tokyo (Japan).
Keywords: Aircraft noise abatement, aircraft trajectory optimization
Abstract: This paper gives an overview of aircraft trajectory management aimed at producing noise abatement procedures. Area Navigation (RNAV) concepts play an important role in the design of flexible and, therefore, noise friendly depart or approach procedures. In addition, the lowest dispersion of RNAV tracks help to contain noise footprints in a smaller area if compared with footprints that are produced when conventional procedures are flown. However, RNAV turns still produce a significant amount of dispersion because of different aircraft performance and different Flight Management Systems (FMS) implementation. Noise exposure can be also mitigated if the aircraft trajectory is conveniently modified in the vertical plane. In this work, a brief overview of different lateral and vertical noise abatement strategies is given. Theoretical optimal trajectories are also assessed presenting some results of previous research done by the authors. The annoyance produced by aircraft noise in different noise sensitive locations is taken as minimization objective. This annoyance not only takes into account the measured acoustic values but also other important aspects that will affect the perceived annoyance by the population. The concept of equitable trajectories is also presented, where noise annoyance is minimized in the worst noise sensitive location and not as an average value for all locations.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_09_trajectory,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Joseba Quevedo and Vicenç Puig},
      title = {Trajectory Management for Aircraft Noise Mitigation},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the ENRI International Workshop on ATM/CNS (EIWAC)},
      publisher = {Electronic Navigation Research Institute (ENRI)},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Mar},
      pages = {45-54},
      address = {Tokyo (Japan)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/2794}
      }
  
Ramírez, J., Barrado, C. & Pastor, E. 2009 (Jan). A Proposal for Using UAS in Radio Navigation Aids Flight Inspection. In Proceedings of the 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting. AIAA, Orlando, Florida (USA).
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, flight inspection, avionics
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to contribute to the inherent necessity of the aerial transport system to guarantee the safety of its users in an efficient manner. This efficiency is required to accomplish the objective of transport people and goods with cost content enough to allow the access to this system at the biggest number of users. To improve this efficiency we propose a new paradigm in Flight Inspection Systems. This new paradigm separates the flight inspection platform in two separate segments, remaining in the air segment the strictly needed resources, the sensors, by mean of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS).
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{ramirez_09_proposal,
      author = {Jorge Ramírez and Cristina Barrado and Enric Pastor},
      title = {A Proposal for Using UAS in Radio Navigation Aids Flight Inspection},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting},
      publisher = {AIAA},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Jan},
      address = {Orlando, Florida (USA)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/6968}
      }
  
Royo, P., López, J., Tristancho, J., Lema, J.M., López, B. & Pastor, E. 2009 (Jan). Service Oriented Fast Prototyping for UAS Missions. In Proceedings of the 47th AIAA-ASM Aerospace Sciences Meeting. Florida (USA).
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, UAV simulator environment, distributed system
Abstract: This paper introduces a simulation architecture to evaluate the implementation of a variety of civil UAS missions with little reconfiguration time and overhead. This architecture, called Icarus Simulation Integrated Scenario (ISIS), is capable of simulating the behavior of the UAS from the mission point of view, but also is able to include additional aerial/ground vehicles. Additionally, the mutual interaction between vehicles and the interaction with their surrounding environment is modeled. The objective of ISIS is to minimize both the development effort and risk, as well as to provide a feasible migration of the software from the testbed platform to the real flight platform. The UAS simulator is designed as a distributed simulation architecture in which vehicles and environment are modeled through specialized pieces of software. A service-oriented communication middleware provides the underlying infrastructure to easily implement the inter-vehicle coordination and even the coordination with third party applications providing additional simulated vehicles or simulated environment. A UAS-based forest fire monitoring application is selected to describe the ISIS capabilities to coordinate the simulation of a multi-vehicle cooperative environment developing a complex mission.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{royo_09_service,
      author = {Pablo Royo and Juan López and Joshua Tristancho and Juan Manuel Lema and Borja López and Enric Pastor},
      title = {Service Oriented Fast Prototyping for UAS Missions},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 47th AIAA-ASM Aerospace Sciences Meeting},
      year = {2009},
      month = {Jan},
      address = {Florida (USA)},
      url = {http://pdf.aiaa.org/preview/CDReadyMASM09_1811/PV2009_1479.pdf}
      }
  
López, J., Royo, P., Barrado, C. & Pastor, E. 2008 (Oct). Modular Avionics for Seamless Reconfigurable UAS Missions. In Proceedings of the IEEE 27th Digital Avionics Systems Conference. IEEE/AIAA, St. Paul, Minesota (USA).
Keywords: IMA, avionics, UAV
Abstract: Abstract Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architecture is a trend in current avionics that employs a partitioned environment in which different avionics functions share a unique computing environment. UAS avionics, especially in small UAS, are usually of less complexity than not the present on airliners, however, in real autonomous UAS, the onboard avionics should control not only the flight and navigation but also the mission and payload of the aircraft. This involves more complex software as it should implement "intelligent" or at least autonomous behavior. This need of both flexibility and complexity management while keeping low costs in the UAS avionics field requires new architectures to cope with. In this article, we describe a modular avionics architecture based on services. The avionics functionality is divided in distributed elements, the services, which are interconnected by a communication middleware. This article also proposes a configuration and deployment infrastructure and its related procedures that complete our vision of UAS avionics.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{lopez_08_modular,
      author = {Juan López and Pablo Royo and Cristina Barrado and Enric Pastor},
      title = {Modular Avionics for Seamless Reconfigurable UAS Missions},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE 27th Digital Avionics Systems Conference},
      publisher = {IEEE/AIAA},
      year = {2008},
      month = {Oct},
      address = {St. Paul, Minesota (USA)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/2519}
      }
  
Ramírez, J., Barrado, C. & Pastor, E. 2008 (Oct). Navaid Flight Inspection Optimisation with UAS Technology. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Precision Approach and Performance Based Navigation. Bonn (Germany).
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, flight inspection, avionics
Abstract: Current society requires to the aerial transport system (since decades ago) the capability to fly, in a safe manner, with unfavorable visibility conditions (night flies, with fog, among the clouds). This requirement makes the use of Radio Navigation Aids critical for the Aerial Transport System. Those NavAids could be seen as radio-frequency emitters which emission structure and geographic location allows the users (the flying aircrafts) to compute its position and course in an homogeneous way. Since the functional objective of a NavAid is to provide a radio-frequency emission with a known structure (spectrum, timing, power...) in order to identify this emission with the known site position, it shall be demonstrated that this emission corresponds with the standard. For this demonstration, a set of parameters shall be measured from the point of view of the final user. I.e: they shall be measured from the air, which is the place where they are used. The current use of general purpose aircrafts for flight inspection of NavAids provides the authorities with the magnitudes to be inspected measured in the same place that they are used but it has a big inconvenience: its price. This proposal has as its masterpiece the study of the technological and regulatory constraints of NavAids flight inspection using the UAS technology. This use allows the separation of the flight inspection in two segments: I.Air Segment. Essential elements in the air, antennas, sensors, data storage... II.Ground Segment. All those elements not strictly necessary for the ongoing inspection, spare parts, capability to carry personnel and ground equipment... Thanks to this, several benefits are obtained: With the proper use of telecommunications the inspection, platform could be seen (from a mission viewpoint) as a network of computers interacting in a common mission. The Air Segment could be resized, replacing the existing aircrafts (large, expensive of acquire and to maintain) by UAS adjusted to the needs in Flight Inspection: to carry sensors in the area to observe. This would bring flights the inherent characteristics of these devices: lower cost of the platform, lower operating costs, increased availability... Several aerial vehicles could be used simultaneously, reporting to a single Ground Segment station. By this provision, different areas could be simultaneously inspected reducing the number of coordinated actions with air navigation and decreasing the time of the inspection Flight. Summarizing: lower costs per flight test.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{ramirez_08_navaid,
      author = {Jorge Ramírez and Cristina Barrado and Enric Pastor},
      title = {Navaid Flight Inspection Optimisation with UAS Technology},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Symposium on Precision Approach and Performance Based Navigation},
      year = {2008},
      month = {Oct},
      address = {Bonn (Germany)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/6900}
      }
  
Royo, P., López, J., Pastor, E. & Barrado, C. 2008 (Oct). Flexible Electrical Manager Service for UAS Applications Development. In Proceedings of the IEEE 27th Digital Avionics Systems Conference. IEEE/AIAA, St. Paul, Minesota (USA).
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, electrical manager, distributed system
Abstract: Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) are becoming viable aerial platforms for civil oriented monitoring applications. However, in most cases the selected UAS platforms are ad-hoc vehicles which include highly heterogeneous avionics. Avionics on-board may be COSTS modules that have highly different non-standard power requirements. Additionally, the available power sources in these UAS may be fairly limited or even restricted to battery units. This paper introduces the ELectrical Manager Service (ELMS), an on-board system in charge of offering a flexible power supply architecture that supports minimal reconfiguration overhead for a wide variety of UAS missions. The ELMS Service is designed to offer a continuous monitoring of the state of the power network, and a coherent and controlled response in front of power supply contingencies. The ELMS will monitor the batteries and generator status, the power consumption of the avionics and other systems, manage the connection/disconnections of systems, and provide power availability estimations. The ELMS Service is part of an architecture designed to facilitate the execution of UAS civil missions, the USAL. The USAL is built as a set of cooperating services in a purely distributed and scalable architecture with a middleware that manages inter-service communications.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{royo_08_flexible,
      author = {Pablo Royo and Juan López and Enric Pastor and Cristina Barrado},
      title = {Flexible Electrical Manager Service for UAS Applications Development},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE 27th Digital Avionics Systems Conference},
      publisher = {IEEE/AIAA},
      year = {2008},
      month = {Oct},
      address = {St. Paul, Minesota (USA)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/2520}
      }
  
González-Párez, H., Prats, X. & Bes, C. 2008 (Sep). Capacity modelling for future aeronautical safety communications over wide areas. In Proceedings of the 8th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference. AIAA, Anchorange, Alaska (USA).
Keywords: aeronautical communications, capacity modeling, satellite communications
Abstract: Air traffic forecast projects an important growth of aircraft movements and new communications means will be necessary. First step in the design phase is the communication needs definition. Within this paper we present a methodology for that task. Due to the operational needs, future air-ground communication architecture for safety communications will probably be composed by a two systems (one terrestrial and one satellite-based). Since current communication means are based on cellular technologies, past methodologies do not provide information for satellite design. The methodology that we have developed is independently of the technology or the type of services. Because of the large coverage of satellite systems, new methodology must be able to provide communication needs over wide areas. Same information will allow to make a global system trade-off for terrestrial cellular systems.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{gonzalez-perez_08_capacity,
      author = {Hugo González-Párez and Xavier Prats and Caroline Bes},
      title = {Capacity modelling for future aeronautical safety communications over wide areas},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 8th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference},
      publisher = {AIAA},
      year = {2008},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Anchorange, Alaska (USA)}
      }
  
Prats, X., Puig, V., Quevedo, J. & Nejjari, F. 2008 (Sep). Hierarchical and sensitivity analysis for noise abatement departure procedures. In Proceedings of the 8th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference. AIAA, Anchorage, Alaska (USA).
Keywords: Aircraft noise abatement, aircraft trajectory optimization, multi-objective optimization
Abstract: Nowadays, the establishment of new noise abatement procedures is one of the main issues that airport authorities have to address. As a continuation of previous studies, the authors present in this paper a strategy for designing such procedures aimed at reducing the global annoyance perceived for the population living around the airports. Noise optimal departing routes are computed for a specific aircraft type and for a given scenario. This non-linear multi-objective optimal control problem is solved by using lexicographic and hierarchical optimisation techniques. This approach establishes a hierarchical order among all the optimisation objectives, which in this work are set as the maximum perceived noise levels at different noise sensitive locations. If the prioritisation that should be adopted is not clear, this work presents two techniques aimed at obtaining the best solution according to an equitable principle, based on minimising the worst case noise annoyance. First approach requires a high computational cost, but the best trajectory is obtained, being the opposite case for the second technique, which is based on heuristics.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_08_hierarchical,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Vicenç Puig and Joseba Quevedo and Fatiha Nejjari},
      title = {Hierarchical and sensitivity analysis for noise abatement departure procedures},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 8th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference},
      publisher = {AIAA},
      year = {2008},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Anchorage, Alaska (USA)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/2793}
      }
  
Prats, X., Pastor, E., Royo, P. & López, J. 2008 (Aug). Flight Dispatching for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. In Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference and Exhibit. AIAA, Honolulu, Hawaii (USA).
Keywords: UAS, UAV, integration to civil airspace, flight operations
Abstract: Flight dispatching is the set of tasks related to flight preparation, such as load and balance, meteorology study and briefing, operational flight planning, contingency analysis and planning, etc. The flight dispatcher must be in close contact with the pilot in command in order to verify that the airplane is airworthy, furnishing all kinds of information needed to properly operate the system. The advent of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) operating on civil missions will require developing new dispatching processes that take into account the main role of these vehicles: the mission. Traditional aviation focuses on point to point transportation of passengers and/or cargo. However, UAVs usually focus on surveillance applications that require large sets of sensors and complementary avionics to properly develop their assigned task. This paper presents the design of a new dispatching methodology focused for UAV civil applications. The overall process is mission-centric, focusing on all the requirements needed to properly implement the assigned tasks, but also integrating the traditional dispatching requirements of manned aircraft. The proposed dispatching process is built upon a specific UAV mission architecture, the Unmanned Service Architecture (USAL). Based on this architecture a methodology is introduced to characterize the mission objectives, the UAV airframe and its various characteristics, the software services required for managing the flight and the mission, the sensor and computational payload, etc. All these elements are combined together in an iterative dispatching flow. The result of the process is the actual UAV configuration in terms of fuel, electrical system, payload configuration, flight plan, etc; but also detailed flight plan, alternative routes and landing sites, detailed USAL service architecture and even contingency planning.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_08_flight,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Enric Pastor and Pablo Royo and Juan López},
      title = {Flight Dispatching for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference and Exhibit},
      publisher = {AIAA},
      year = {2008},
      month = {Aug},
      address = {Honolulu, Hawaii (USA)}
      }
  
Santamaria, E., Royo, P., Barrado, C., Pastor, E., López, J. & Prats, X. 2008 (Aug). Mission Aware Flight Planning for Unmanned Aerial Systems. In Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference and Exhibit. AIAA, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, rnav, flight plan
Abstract: The development of Flight Control Systems (FCS) coupled with the availability of other Commercial Off-The Shelf (COTS) components is enabling the introduction of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the civil market. UAS have great potential to be used in a wide variety of civil applications such as environmental applications, emergency situations, surveillance tasks and more. In general, they are specially well suited for the so-called D-cube operations (Dirty, Dull or Dangerous). Current technology greatly facilitates the construction of UAS. Sophisticated flight control systems also make them accessible to end users with little aeronautical expertise. However, we believe that for its successful introduction into the civil market, progress needs to be made to deliver systems able to perform a wide variety of missions with minimal reconfiguration and with reduced operational costs. Most current flight plan specification mechanisms consist in a simple list of waypoints, an approach that has important limitations. This paper proposes a new specification mechanism with semantically richer constructs that will enable the end user to specify more complex flight plans. The proposed formalism provides means for specifying iterative behavior, conditional branching and other constructs to dynamically adapt the flight path to mission circumstances. Collaborating with the FCS, a new module on-board the UAS will be in charge of executing these plans. The paper also presents a prototype implementation of this module and the results obtained in simulations.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{santamaria_08_mission,
      author = {Eduard Santamaria and Pablo Royo and Cristina Barrado and Enric Pastor and Juan López and Xavier Prats},
      title = {Mission Aware Flight Planning for Unmanned Aerial Systems},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference and Exhibit},
      publisher = {AIAA},
      year = {2008},
      month = {Aug},
      address = {Honolulu, Hawaii},
      url = {http://www.eurocontrol.int/eec/gallery/content/public/documents/Innovative_Studies/grants/2008/Mission_aware_flight_planning_for_UAVs.pdf}
      }
  
Prats, X., Puig, V., Quevedo, J. & Nejjari, F. 2008 (Jun). Optimal departure aircraft trajectories minimising population annoyance. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Research in Air Transportation (ICRAT). pp. 421-428. EUROCONTROL / George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia (USA). Best paper in track award.
Keywords: Aircraft noise abatement, aircraft trajectory optimization, multi-objective optimization, fuzzy logic
Abstract: This paper presents a strategy for designing noise abatement procedures aimed at reducing the global annoyance perceived for the population living around the airports. By using fuzzy logic techniques it is shown how annoyance can be modelled in function of the maximum perceived noise level at a specific noise sensitive location and the time of the day when the departure takes place. Thus, the annoyance is computed for different kinds of sensibility areas, such as residential zones, industrial zones, schools or hospitals and an annoyance figure is obtained for each possible trajectory. Then, a non-linear multiobjective optimal control problem is presented in order to obtain the minimum annoyance trajectory for all sensitive locations. Lexicographic optimisation is used to cope with the difficulties that arise when several criteria appear in the optimisation process. Finally, a practical example is given for an hypothetical scenario where different optimal trajectories are obtained at different day periods
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_08_optimal,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Vicenç Puig and Joseba Quevedo and Fatiha Nejjari},
      title = {Optimal departure aircraft trajectories minimising population annoyance},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Research in Air Transportation (ICRAT)},
      publisher = {EUROCONTROL / George Mason University},
      year = {2008},
      month = {Jun},
      pages = {421-428},
      address = {Fairfax, Virginia (USA)},
      note = {Best paper in track award},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/2107}
      }
  
Álvarez, V., Prats, X., Soley, S. & Montolio, J. 2008 (Apr). EGNOS: a big system for small aerodromes. In Proceedings of the European Navigation Conference. Toulouse, France.
Keywords: satellite navigation, EGNOS, RNAV, APV approaches
Abstract: The work presented in this paper evaluates the benefits and services that EGNOS based navigation can provide to a regional network of aerodromes. The basic enablers for deploying this kind of operations are pointed out, focusing in airport infrastructure but also in required avionics and pilots rating. The regional aerodrome network of Catalonia is now managed by the public company Aeroports de Catalunya, jointly with local authorities, under control and supervision of the regional Government of Catalonia, aimed at providing the region with an enhanced and high quality network of aerodromes: between its plans, the modernization of the existing network and the construction of several new regional aerodromes, as well as one business airport. This work also analyses how the benefits of EGNOS for this emerging network can be taken into account in future policies of Aeroports de Catalunya. For instance, opportunities for new users such as fire extinguishing and rescue services as well as potential business development (like small air taxi companies) are pointed out. In addition, a new specific procedure design tool is presented. RAPIT (RNAV and APV Procedures Integrated Tool) is a CAD environment software tool specifically developed to assist RNAV and APV procedures design. It is able to manage cartographic and geographic data, making use of modern Digital Terrain Models, as well as obstacle databases. Moreover, it includes some basic drawing tools to assist procedure design. Finally a feasibility study of new EGNOS APV approach procedures is presented for two particular airports of the Catalan secondary airport network.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{alvarez_08_egnos,
      author = {Víctor Álvarez and Xavier Prats and Santiago Soley and Josep Montolio},
      title = {EGNOS: a big system for small aerodromes},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the European Navigation Conference},
      year = {2008},
      month = {Apr},
      address = {Toulouse, France},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/1992}
      }
  
Royo, P., López, J., Pastor, E. & Barrado, C. 2008 (Jan). Service Abstraction Layer for UAV Flexible Application Development. In Proceedings of the 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit. AIAA, Reno, Nevada (USA).
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, UAV architecture, avionics
Abstract: An Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) is an uninhabited airplane, piloted by embed- ded avionics and supervised by an operator on ground. Unmanned Aerial Systems were designed to operate in dangerous situations, like military missions. With the avionics tech- nological evolution, Unmanned Aerial Systems also become a valid option for commercial applications, specially for dull and tedious surveillance applications. Cost considerations will also deviate some mission done today with conventional aircrafts to Unmanned Aerial Systems. In order to build economically viable UAS solutions, the same platform should be able to implement a variety of missions with little reconfiguration time and overhead. This paper describes a software abstraction layer for a Unmanned Aerial System distributed architecture. The proposed abstraction layer allows the easy and fast design of missions and solves in a cost-effective way the reusability of the system. The distributed architecture of the Unmanned Aerial System is service oriented. Func- tional units are implemented as independent services that interact each other using commu- nication primitives in a network centric approach. The paper presents a set of predefined services useful for reconfigurable civil missions and the directives for their communication.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{royo_08_service,
      author = {Pablo Royo and Juan López and Enric Pastor and Cristina Barrado},
      title = {Service Abstraction Layer for UAV Flexible Application Development},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit},
      publisher = {AIAA},
      year = {2008},
      month = {Jan},
      address = {Reno, Nevada (USA)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/2518}
      }
  
Royo, P., López, J., Pastor, E. & Barrado, C. 2008 (Jan). Service Abstraction Layer for UAV Flexible Application Development. In Proceedings of the 46th AIAA-ASM Aerospace Sciences Meeting. Reno, Nevada (USA).
Keywords:
Abstract: An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle is a non-piloted airplane designed to operate in D-cube (Dangerous-Dirty-Dull) situations. With the advent of UAV’s civil applications, UAVs are emerging as a valid option in commercial scenarios. If it must be economically viable, the same platform should implement a variety of missions with little reconfiguration time and overhead. This paper proposes the UAV Services Abstraction Layer (USAL) that allows to solve the problem of reusability of he himself hardware/software for different missions. It is an abstraction layer that allows to design re-usable missions. With this intention it offers a set of predefined services and directives for its communication.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{royo_08_usal,
      author = {Pablo Royo and Juan López and Enric Pastor and Cristina Barrado},
      title = {Service Abstraction Layer for UAV Flexible Application Development},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 46th AIAA-ASM Aerospace Sciences Meeting},
      year = {2008},
      month = {Jan},
      address = {Reno, Nevada (USA)}
      }
  
López, J., Royo, P., Pastor, E., Barrado, C. & Santamaria, E. 2007 (Nov). A Middleware Architecture for Unmanned Aircraft Avionics. In Proceedings of the ACM/IFIP/USEUNIX 8th Int. Middleware Conference. NewPort, California (USA).
Keywords: middleware, avionics, UAV
Abstract: An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle is a non-piloted airplane designed to operate in dangerous and repetitive situations. With the advent of UAV's civil applications, UAVs are emerging as a valid option in commercial scenarios. If it must be economically viable, the same platform should implement a variety of missions with little reconguration time and overhead. This paper presents a middleware-based architecture specially suited to operate as a exible payload and mission controller in a UAV. The system is composed of low-cost computing devices connected by network. The functionality is divided into reusable services distributed over a number of nodes with a middleware managing their lifecycle and communication. Some research has been done in this area; yet it is mainly focused on the control domain and in its realtime operation. Our proposal differs in that we address the implementation of adaptable and reconfigurable unmanned missions in low-cost and low-resources hardware.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{lopez_07_middleware,
      author = {Juan López and Pablo Royo and Enric Pastor and Cristina Barrado and Eduard Santamaria},
      title = {A Middleware Architecture for Unmanned Aircraft Avionics},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the ACM/IFIP/USEUNIX 8th Int. Middleware Conference},
      year = {2007},
      month = {Nov},
      address = {NewPort, California (USA)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/1468}
      }
  
Delgado, L. & Castell, L. 2007 (Oct). Automatic Reading of Aeronautical Meteorological Messages. In Proceedings of the Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications. pp. 263-270. IOS Press, St. Julià de Lòria (Andorra).
Keywords:
Abstract: This paper describes the architecture developed to produce an automatic reader of aeronautical meteorological messages. An interlingua has been used and a whole process of natural language generation has been implemented. The system Festival has been used with a modified voice to read the messages generated. The presented system is able to translate the meteorological messages into a natural language text and read it.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{delgado_07_automatic,
      author = {Luis Delgado and L. Castell},
      title = {Automatic Reading of Aeronautical Meteorological Messages},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications},
      publisher = {IOS Press},
      year = {2007},
      month = {Oct},
      pages = {263-270},
      address = {St. Julià de Lòria (Andorra)}
      }
  
Santamaria, E., Royo, P., López, J., Barrado, C., Pastor, E. & Prats, X. 2007 (Oct). Increasing UAV capabilities through autopilot and flight plan abstraction. In Proceedings of the 26th Digital Avionics Systems Conference. AIAA/IEEE, Dallas, Texas. Student best paper award.
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems, autopilots, flight plan
Abstract: This paper presents two novel avionics subsystems that aim at overcoming two clearly identified drawbacks of current UAV technology. Firstly, on board exploitation of autopilot telemetry is a complex and autopilot dependent task. Secondly, the flight plan definition mechanism available in most autopilots is just a collection of waypoints. This approach has several limitations, among them its inability to allow interaction between the flight plan and the mission in progress. The Flight Control System Gateway is a component designed to facilitate exploitation of data obtained from the autopilot. It provides a hardware-independent interface that isolates payload components from the autopilot specificities, thus eliminating dependencies on a particular autopilot solution. The Flight Plan Manager is a subsystem that interacts with the FCS Gateway in order to direct the flight of the UAV. It follows a flight plan described via a novel specification mechanism and sends commands to the FCS Gateway for its execution. The specification formalism improves on current mechanisms by introducing higher level constructs and enabling interaction with other payload components. These subsystems are integrated into an overall avionics solution which is based on an innovative publish/subscribe service based software architecture and a LAN based distributed hardware architecture.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{santamaria_07_increasing,
      author = {Eduard Santamaria and Pablo Royo and Juan López and Cristina Barrado and Enric Pastor and Xavier Prats},
      title = {Increasing UAV capabilities through autopilot and flight plan abstraction},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 26th Digital Avionics Systems Conference},
      publisher = {AIAA/IEEE},
      year = {2007},
      month = {Oct},
      address = {Dallas, Texas},
      note = {Student best paper award},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/DASC.2007.4391935}
      }
  
Prats, X., Quevedo, J., Puig, V. & Nejjari, F. 2007 (Aug). Planning of aircraft departure trajectories by using fuzzy logic and lexicographic optimization. In Proceedings of the 36th Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering. Turkish AcoTurkish Acoustical Society; IZOCAM, Istanbul (Turkey).
Keywords: Aircraft noise abatement, aircraft trajectory optimization, multi-objective optimization, fuzzy logic
Abstract: In this paper a strategy for planning aircraft departure trajectories for a given airport is presented. Noise annoyance produced by overflying aircraft is modeled by using fuzzy logic in function of the received noise level during the trajectory, the type and specific sensibility of the areas being overflyed and the time of the day when the aircraft departure takes place. Hence, an annoyance figure is obtained at different locations in the vicinity of the airport in function of a given trajectory. A non-linear multi-objective optimal control problem is presented in order to minimize the annoyance at all different locations and an optimal departure trajectory is obtained. The multi-objective optimization problem is solved by using a lexicographic technique where a hierarchical order among the optimization objectives is established in function of the perceived annoyance at each different location. Finally, a practical example is given where an optimal departure trajectory is obtained while minimizing the noise nuisance at some residential zones, hospitals, schools and industrial zones.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_07_planning,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Joseba Quevedo and Vicenç Puig and Fatiha Nejjari},
      title = {Planning of aircraft departure trajectories by using fuzzy logic and lexicographic optimization},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 36th Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering},
      publisher = {Turkish AcoTurkish Acoustical Society; IZOCAM},
      year = {2007},
      month = {Aug},
      address = {Istanbul (Turkey)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/1183}
      }
  
Quevedo, J., Prats, X., Nejjari, F. & Puig, V. 2007 (May). Aircraft Annoyance Minimization Around Urban Airports Based On Fuzzy Logic. In Proceedings of the Conference on systems and control (CSC). GERAD, École Polytechnique de Montreal, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh, Morocco.
Keywords: Aircraft noise abatement, aircraft trajectory optimization, multi-objective optimization, fuzzy logic
Abstract: This paper presents a strategy based on fuzzy logic and lexicographic multi-objective optimization for designing noise abatement procedures aimed at reducing the noise exposure of the population living around the airports. A non-linear multi-objective optimal control problem is formally written and identified. A lexicographic optimization technique is presented for establishing a hierarchical order among the optimization objectives which are the noise at several different sensitive locations and fuel or time consumption criteria. A fuzzylogic set has been established to represent the noise annoyance in four different sensitive locations around the airport. A model for departure procedures has been used and the solution for a hypothetical scenario with four different noise sensitive locations is presented.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{quevedo_07_aircraft,
      author = {Joseba Quevedo and Xavier Prats and Fatiha Nejjari and Vicenç Puig},
      title = {Aircraft Annoyance Minimization Around Urban Airports Based On Fuzzy Logic},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Conference on systems and control (CSC)},
      publisher = {GERAD, École Polytechnique de Montreal, Cadi Ayyad University},
      year = {2007},
      month = {May},
      address = {Marrakesh, Morocco},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/2033}
      }
  
Pastor, E., Royo, P., López, J., Barrado, C., Santamaria, E. & Prats, X. 2007 (Apr). Project SKY-EYE. Applying UAVs to Forest Fire Fighter Support and Monitoring. In Proceedings of the Unmanned Vehicle Systems International UAV 2007 Conference. Paris (France).
Keywords: unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), distributed architecture, middleware, wildfire, remote sensing
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{pastor_07_project,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Pablo Royo and Juan López and Cristina Barrado and Eduard Santamaria and Xavier Prats},
      title = {Project SKY-EYE. Applying UAVs to Forest Fire Fighter Support and Monitoring},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Unmanned Vehicle Systems International UAV 2007 Conference},
      year = {2007},
      month = {Apr},
      address = {Paris (France)}
      }
  
Pastor, E., López, J. & Royo, P. 2006 (Oct). A hardware/software architecture for UAV payload and mission control. In Proceedings of the 25th Digital Avionics Systems Conference. AIAA/IEEE, Portland, Oregon (USA).
Keywords:
Abstract: This paper presents an embedded hardware/software architecture specially designed to be applied on mini/micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). An UAV is low-cost non-piloted airplane designed to operate in D-cube (Dangerous-Dirty-Dull) situations [8]. Many types of UAVs exist today; however with the advent of UAV's civil applications, the class of mini/micro UAVs is emerging as a valid option in a commercial scenario. This type of UAV shares limitations with most computer embedded systems: limited space, limited power resources, increasing computation requirements, complexity of the applications, time to market requirements, etc. UAVs are automatically piloted by an embedded system named “Flight Control System”. Many of those systems are commercially available today, however no commercial system exists nowadays that provides support to the actual mission that the UAV should perform.
This paper introduces a hardware/software architecture specially designed to operate as a flexible payload and mission controller in a mini/micro UAV. Given that the missions UAVs can carry on justify their existence, we believe that specific payload and mission controller s for UAV should be developed. Our architectonic proposal for them orbits around four key elements: a LAN based distributed and scalable hardware architecture, a service/subscription based software architecture and an abstraction communication layer.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{pastor_06_hardware-software,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Juan López and Pablo Royo},
      title = {A hardware/software architecture for UAV payload and mission control},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 25th Digital Avionics Systems Conference},
      publisher = {AIAA/IEEE},
      year = {2006},
      month = {Oct},
      address = {Portland, Oregon (USA)}
      }
  
de Montlaur, A., Prats, X., Rojas, J.I. & Garc�a-Berro, E. 2006 (Sep). Model Rocket Workshop. In Actas de las III jornadas internacionales de innovaci�n universitaria. Metodos docentes afines al EEES. Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM), Madrid (Spain). (in Spanish).
Keywords: teaching, problem-based Learning, rocketry, tansversal skills
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{montlaur_06_model,
      author = {Adeline de Montlaur and Xavier Prats and Jos� Ignacio Rojas and Enrique Garc�a-Berro},
      title = {Model Rocket Workshop},
      booktitle = {Actas de las III jornadas internacionales de innovaci�n universitaria. Metodos docentes afines al EEES},
      publisher = {Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM)},
      year = {2006},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Madrid (Spain)},
      note = {(in Spanish)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/551}
      }
  
Pastor, E., López, J. & Royo, P. 2006 (Aug). An Embedded Architecture for Mission Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. In Proceedings of the 9th EuroMicro Conference on Digital Systems Design. Euromicro, Cavtat/Dubrovnik, (Croatia).
Keywords:
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{pastor_06_embedded,
      author = {Enric Pastor and Juan López and Pablo Royo},
      title = {An Embedded Architecture for Mission Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th EuroMicro Conference on Digital Systems Design},
      publisher = {Euromicro},
      year = {2006},
      month = {Aug},
      address = {Cavtat/Dubrovnik, (Croatia)}
      }
  
Prats, X., Nejjari, F., Puig, V., Quevedo, J. & Mora-Camino, F. 2006 (Jun). A framework for RNAV trajectory generation minimizing noise nuisances. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Research in Air Transportation (ICRAT). pp. 19-28. EUROCONTROL / Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering of Belgrade University, Belgrade (Serbia). Best paper in track award.
Keywords: Aircraft noise abatement, aircraft trajectory optimization, multi-objective optimization
Abstract: In this work it is presented a framework for a global optimization tool that will take into account aircraft dynamics and performances, noise nuisances and RNAV radionavigation requirements in order to assess an optimum flight depart or approach procedure. This strategy would be used as an optimization process performed by the corresponding authority in charge of the air traffic management of the involved airport or by an on-board optimization algorithm integrated in the Flight Management and Guidance System (FMGS). In both cases, the optimization framework is the same and the differences reside in the specific implementation of the optimization algorithms and the availability of the data in real time. In addition, aircraft's dynamic equations are developed in order to compute the flight trajectory from a set of flight guidance control variables and a first glance into a noise optimization criterion is given. Finally, the globaloptimization problem is properly formulated and the proposed solving utilities are presented.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_06_framework,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Fatiha Nejjari and Vicenç Puig and Joseba Quevedo and Félix Mora-Camino},
      title = {A framework for RNAV trajectory generation minimizing noise nuisances},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Research in Air Transportation (ICRAT)},
      publisher = {EUROCONTROL / Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering of Belgrade University},
      year = {2006},
      month = {Jun},
      pages = {19-28},
      address = {Belgrade (Serbia)},
      note = {Best paper in track award},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/553}
      }
  
Prats, X., Quevedo, J., Nejjari, F. & Puig, V. 2006 (Jun). Noise nuisance model for optimizing flight trajectories around airports. In Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium in transport noise and vibration. East European Acoustical Association, St. Petersburg (Russia).
Keywords: Aircraft noise abatement, aircraft trajectory optimization, multi-objective optimization
Abstract: This work presents a noise nuisances model that takes into account not only the perceived noise but also the sensibility of the zone where this noise is produced. Several factors are considered, like the activity of the zone (residential, industrial, medical...), the time of the day and day of the week, the environmental noise already existent in the zone, the periodicity of the noise for several sequential trajectories, etc. By means of a noise propagation model giving the Sound Exposure Level (SEL) or the Lmax values at certain locations, a noise nuisance model will be developed in order to supply different optimization criteria. Then, multi-objective optimization is presented and specifically, lexicographic optimization is identified as the most suitable technique that can be used to compute minimum nuisance flight trajectories. Some preliminary results are finally given showing the feasibility and suitability of this particular multi-objective optimization technique.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_06_noise,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Joseba Quevedo and Fatiha Nejjari and Vicenç Puig},
      title = {Noise nuisance model for optimizing flight trajectories around airports},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium in transport noise and vibration},
      publisher = {East European Acoustical Association},
      year = {2006},
      month = {Jun},
      address = {St. Petersburg (Russia)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/552}
      }
  
Prats, X., Álvarez, V. & Soley, S. 2005 (Oct). Enhancing the development of a particular network of aerodromes by using EGNOS. In Proceedings of the 56th International Astronautical Congress. Fukuoka, Japan.
Keywords: satellite navigation, EGNOS, RNAV, APV approaches
Abstract: Major improvements and new challenges will arise from the availability of new Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) in the next decades. In particular, Satellite Based Augmentation systems (SBAS) meet the high accuracy, integrity and continuity levels required for safe critical applications, such as civil aviation radionavigation. The European SBAS contribution is called EGNOS (Global Navigation Overlay Service) which after more than six years of system development is expected to be ready for the final certification phase by the end of 2005. Conventional air radionavigation in continental airspace uses ground based navigation aids. Consequently, the system is inflexible regarding the en-route structure and airport departure or approach procedures. In addition, these facilities have a significant cost and an expensive maintenance program which small airports or aerodromes cannot afford. On the other hand, EGNOS will provide improved procedures at almost no cost for the airport authority in locations where instrumental navigation is poor or even not existing. This work contains a feasibility study of new EGNOS departure and approach procedures in small aerodromes where currently instrumental radionavigation is not possible. Particularly,the study focuses on the regional aerodrome network of Catalonia (Spain), whose characteristics are varied enough to make the benefits of the study representative. For instance, opportunities for new users such as fire extinguishing and rescue services as well as potential business development (like small regional passenger or cargo operators)are pointed out. In addition, this study remarks safety, environmental and operational advantages that satellite navigation will provideto civil aviation.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_05_enhancing,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Víctor Álvarez and Santiago Soley},
      title = {Enhancing the development of a particular network of aerodromes by using EGNOS},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 56th International Astronautical Congress},
      year = {2005},
      month = {Oct},
      address = {Fukuoka, Japan},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/648}
      }
  
Prats, X. 2005 (Sep). Teaching practicals based on flight simulators -- Pr�cticas docentes con simuladores de vuelo. In Proceedings of the II Jornadas Internacionales de innovaci�n universitaria. Universidad Europea de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. (in Spanish).
Keywords: teaching practicals, aeronautics, flight simulator
Abstract: Este trabajo presenta las pr�cticas de laboratorio de la asignatura de Tecnolog�a Aaeroespacial, perteneciente a la titulaci�n de Ingenier�a T�cnica Aeron�utica (especialidad en Aeronavegaci�n) y que se imparte en la Escuela Polit�cnica Superior de Castelldefels (EPSC) de la Universidad Polit�cnica de Catalunya (UPC). Dichas pr�cticas se desarrollan en grupos de dos estudiantes alrededor de un conocido programa de simulaci�n de vuelo y permiten al alumno ver y profundizar en los diferentes aspectos tratados en las clases te�ricas de una manera pr�xima a la realidad y muy amigable. El alumno debe afrontarse a situaciones que, a lo largo de las diferentes sesiones de laboratorio, aumentan progresivamente en complejidad y conocimientos previos necesarios para resolverlas. Con esto, se llega a la pr�ctica final donde cada pareja de estudiantes realiza un vuelo completo simulado de principio a fin que ha ido preparando y experimentando por partes durante el curso. Adem�s, este vuelo se realiza en un entorno de simulaci�n de tr�fico a�reo en tiempo real con control del tr�fico a�reo virtual (formado por estudiantes voluntarios de cursos superiores) que da aun m�s realismo a la simulaci�n. Despu�s de seis cursos consecutivos realizando esta experiencia, este trabajo concluye que este tipo de pr�cticas motivan significativamente al alumno a profundizar en los aspectos de la asignatura y potencian el trabajo cooperativo y el aprendizaje basado en proyectos.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_05_practicas,
      author = {Xavier Prats},
      title = {Teaching practicals based on flight simulators -- Pr�cticas docentes con simuladores de vuelo},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the II Jornadas Internacionales de innovaci�n universitaria},
      publisher = {Universidad Europea de Madrid},
      year = {2005},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Madrid, Spain},
      note = {(in Spanish)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/647}
      }
  
Nejjari, F., Prats, X., Puig, V., Quevedo, J., Polit, M., Ouattara, B., Achaibou, K. & Mora-Camino, F. 2005 (Aug). Containing Aircraft Noise Levels at take-off: a mathematical programming approach. In Proceedings of the 34th Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering. International Institute of Noise Control Engineering (I-INCE), Brazilian Acoustical Society (SOBRAC) and Iberoamerican Federation of Acoustic, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).
Keywords: Aircraft noise abatement, aircraft trajectory optimization, multi-objective optimization
Abstract: The sustained growth of air transportation traffic along the last decades has induced increasing noise exposure for the areas surrounding large and medium airports. This study concentrates on the optimization of the take-off and departure flight phase for a transportation aircraft. A general aircraft trajectory generation problem is first formulated as an optimal control problem where a global cost, including noise penalties, is to be minimized. Since aircraft operators and communities have conflictive objectives, a noise index is introduced. Airlines operations costs and community noise levels are expressed as complex functions of the aircraft trajectory geometry resulting in a complex optimization problem. It is observed that flight dynamics present a differential flatness property and it is discussed how to take advantage of this to solve the trajectory generation problem and assess adequately the resulting surrounding noise exposure. Then, the case of a particular standard take-off/initial climb trajectory is considered. It appears that the noise level constraints turn the resulting mathematical programming problem numerically intricate and that this problem should be approached as a parameter optimization problem through a systematic evaluation process.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{nejjari_05_containing,
      author = {Nejjari, Fatiha and Prats, Xavier and Puig, Vicenç and Quevedo, Joseba and Polit, Monique and Ouattara, Baba and Achaibou, Karim and Mora-Camino, Felix},
      title = {Containing Aircraft Noise Levels at take-off: a mathematical programming approach},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 34th Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering},
      publisher = {International Institute of Noise Control Engineering (I-INCE), Brazilian Acoustical Society (SOBRAC) and Iberoamerican Federation of Acoustic},
      year = {2005},
      month = {Aug},
      address = {Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/2031}
      }
  
Giró, X., Aragón, A., Prats, X. & Acero, L. 2004 (Jun). The moonlight project: bringing light to our satellite. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Solar Power from Space SPS'04. European Space Agency (ESA), Granada (Spain).
Keywords: Solar energy, space applications, satellite, light reflector
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{giro_04_moonlight,
      author = {Xavier Giró and Angela Aragón and Xavier Prats and Lluís Acero},
      title = {The moonlight project: bringing light to our satellite},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Solar Power from Space SPS'04},
      publisher = {European Space Agency (ESA)},
      year = {2004},
      month = {Jun},
      address = {Granada (Spain)}
      }
  
Prats, X., Hernández-Pajares, M., Juan, M., Sanz, J. & Orús, R. 2003 (Oct). SBAS data processing and analyzing tool (BRUS). In Proceedings of the 54rd International Astronautical Congress. International Astronautical Federation, Bremen (Germany). Paper: IAC-03-M3-04.
Keywords: satellite navigation, EGNOS, SBAS, software
Abstract: Satellite Based Augmentation systems (SBAS) meet the high accuracy, integrity and continuity levels required for safe critical applications, such as civil aviation radionavigation. The SBAS system broadcasts, via a geostationary satellite, some extra information (containing several differential corrections and integrity parameters) in order to enhance the insufficient accuracy, integrity and continuity levels which are obtained with stand alone GPS positioning. The European Global Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS), the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) and the Multifuntional Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS), are respectively the European, the American and the Japanese contribution into the SBAS project. The Astronomy and GEomatics research group from the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (gAGE/UPC) is developing a software package which is able to process data gathered from EGNOS and WAAS systems. These Basic Research Utilities for SBAS (BRUS) will provide the user with a large amount of information related with SBAS data processing. For instance, all differential corrections (like ephemeris and clocks or ionosphere) and all different integrity information will be available with some extra information about how these corrections have been internally computed and applied. This capability will allow many possibilities for the SBAS performance analysis in both, Signal In Space (SIS) and user position domain. The BRUS package consist of three software modules: a first stage which converts raw binary EGNOS or WAAS receivers data into different ASCII files, a main stage which processes this information and outputs the navigation solution and all the extra information related with the differential corrections and the integrity information, and a final stage that contains different statistics and graphics tools in order to output properly all the desired information. This software has been used for performance evaluation purposes of the EGNOS System Test Bed (ESTB) during a data collection campaign leaded by EUROCONTROL (the European organization for the safety of air navigation) in 2002.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_03_sbas,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Manuel Hernández-Pajares and Miguel Juan and Jaume Sanz and Raül Orús},
      title = {SBAS data processing and analyzing tool (BRUS)},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 54rd International Astronautical Congress},
      publisher = {International Astronautical Federation},
      year = {2003},
      month = {Oct},
      address = {Bremen (Germany)},
      note = {Paper: IAC-03-M3-04}
      }
  
Prats, X., Hernández-Pajares, M., Juan, M. & Sanz, J. 2003 (Sep). Analysis of the EGNOS ionospheric corrections accuracy. In Proceedings of the workshp on theory, technology and realities of Inertial/GPS sensor orientation. International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain).
Keywords: satellite navigation, EGNOS, SBAS, ionosphere
Abstract: As it is well known, Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) enhances accuracy, integrity and availability levels of stand alone GPS navigation. The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) will be an important European contribution into global satellite navigation as a new SBAS system. Since January 2002 the Research Group of Astronomy and Geomatics of the Technical University of Catalonia (gAGE/UPC) has been gathering weekly 24 hour sets of data from the EGNOS System Test Bed (ESTB), which is a full scale EGNOS prototype. A set of tests for the ionospheric performance analysis were proposed in a previous work, being applied over four months of ESTB data collection (from January to April 2002). The goal of this paper is to expand those test ideas as well as the ESTB analysis period, in order to study the performance of the ESTB broadcast ionospheric corrections during year 2002 and early 2003, coinciding with some updates of the ESTB signal. In such a way, vertical TEC comparisons with the TOPEX POSEIDON altimetric satellite (which measures ionospheric vertical delays directly over oceans and wide water surfaces covered by the ESTB service volume), as well as additional comparisons with other test techniques are presented.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_03_analysis,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Manuel Hernández-Pajares and Miguel Juan and Jaume Sanz},
      title = {Analysis of the EGNOS ionospheric corrections accuracy},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the workshp on theory, technology and realities of Inertial/GPS sensor orientation},
      publisher = {International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing},
      year = {2003},
      month = {Sep},
      address = {Castelldefels, Catalonia (Spain)}
      }
  
Hernández-Pajares, M., Juan, M., Sanz, J. & Prats, X. 2003 (Feb). ESTB performance sensibility against lossing satellites. In Proceedings of the 5th Geomatics Week Conference. Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain).
Keywords: satellite navigation, EGNOS, SBAS, software
Abstract: The EGNOS System Test Bed (ESTB) is the EGNOS prototype which has been broadcasting a Signal in Space since February 2000. Accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability are the main concepts in this European component of the Satellite Based Augmentation System which is designed to support en route through precision approach aircraft navigation. In this work, for the first half of the year of 2002, we study the ESTB performance in fixed sites in Barcelona, and we analyze how this performance is affected when losing a single ESTB monitored satellite. The data set involves a 24 hours weekly measurements collected in two fixed sites (UPC1 and UPC2), from January to August 2002. In particular, the number of Loss of Integrity events (LOI) and the degradation of the Vertical Position Error percentile and the APV-II availability are analyzed. As the main results, two satellites have been identified which loss could have produced a large number of LOIs (up to hundreds) in two particular days before the ESTB update of April 16th 2002. The improvement in the ESTB performance after such update is also reported.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{hernandez-pajares_03_estb,
      author = {Manuel Hernández-Pajares and Miguel Juan and Jaume Sanz and Xavier Prats},
      title = {ESTB performance sensibility against lossing satellites},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th Geomatics Week Conference},
      publisher = {Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya},
      year = {2003},
      month = {Feb},
      address = {Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/970}
      }
  
Hernández-Pajares, M., Juan, M., Sanz, J., Prats, X. & Baeta, J. 2003 (Feb). Basic research utilities for SBAS: BRUS. In Proceedings of the 5th Geomatics Week Conference. Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain).
Keywords: satellite navigation, EGNOS, SBAS, software
Abstract: The software package BRUS (Basic Research Utilities for SBAS) to process WAAS and EGNOS data is being developed by gAGE/UPC. Some of the main characteristics of BRUS are its architecture design and functionalities that allow to obtain huge information for the different error source components (satellite coordinates, clocks, ionospheric corrections,...), providing wide possibilities for the SBAS performance analysis in both, SIS and position domain. As an application, the performance of the EGNOS System Test Bed (ESTB) during 2002 is analyzed; using data sets collected in the ESTB Data Collection and Evaluation campaigns of EUROCONTROL (the European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation). As an extension of BRUS, a Global Performance SBAS Monitoring Tool using public domain GPS networks data is going to be developed.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{hernandez-pajares_03_basic,
      author = {Manuel Hernández-Pajares and Miguel Juan and Jaume Sanz and Xavier Prats and Jordi Baeta},
      title = {Basic research utilities for SBAS: BRUS},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th Geomatics Week Conference},
      publisher = {Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya},
      year = {2003},
      month = {Feb},
      address = {Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/828}
      }
  
Orús, R., García-Fernandez, M., Prats, X., Hernández-Pajares, M. & Juan, M. 2003 (Feb). Study of several interpolation schemes to provide ionospheric corrections for navigation. In Proceedings of the 5th Geomatics Week Conference. Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain).
Keywords: satellite navigation, ionosphere
Abstract: Since the development of space based geodesic techniques, the increasing of the positioning accuracy has been a major goal. In this context, the effect of the ionosphere has been a key issue to be taken into account to improve the navigation results obtained using several types of receivers: from dual frequency phase receivers at distances greater than tens of kilometres of the nearest fixed site to single frequency code receivers. To overcome this problem, it is necessary either an accurate modelling of the ionosphere at the fixed stations and an optimum interpolation scheme for the rover receiver. This approach is either valid for single frequency users or rovers using dual frequency phase receiver. The current work studies the performance of different interpolation schemes such as linear interpolation and kriging, which can be implemented in a rover receiver in order to interpolate either the Slant Total Electron Content (from now on STEC) or the Double Differenced STEC from the transmitted corrections that are computed at the fixed stations.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{orus_03_study,
      author = {Raül Orús and Miquel García-Fernandez and Xavier Prats and Manuel Hernández-Pajares and Miguel Juan},
      title = {Study of several interpolation schemes to provide ionospheric corrections for navigation},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th Geomatics Week Conference},
      publisher = {Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya},
      year = {2003},
      month = {Feb},
      address = {Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/969}
      }
  
Prats, X., Orús, R., Sanz, J., Farnworth, R. & Soley, S. 2003 (Feb). SBAS ionospheric performance evaluation tests. In Proceedings of the 5th Geomatics Week Conference. Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain).
Keywords: Satellite navigation, EGNOS, SBAS, ionosphere
Abstract: Satellite Based Augmentation systems (SBAS) provide to Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) users with an extra set of information, in order to enhance accuracy and integrity levels of GNSS stand alone positioning. In this context, different test methods to analyze the ionospheric corrections performance are presented. The first set of tests involves two of the ionospheric calculations that are applied daily to the Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM), computed by the IGS Associate Analysis Centers: a TEC TOPEX comparison test and the STEC variations test. The second family of tests provides two very accurate analyses based on large-baselines ambiguity resolution techniques giving comparisons for absolute STEC and double differenced STEC determinations. Those four analyses have been applied using EGNOS System Test Bed (ESTB) data showing some satellite dependent biases.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_03_sbasa,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Raül Orús and Jaume Sanz and Richard Farnworth and Santiago Soley},
      title = {SBAS ionospheric performance evaluation tests},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th Geomatics Week Conference},
      publisher = {Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya},
      year = {2003},
      month = {Feb},
      address = {Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)}
      }
  
Prats, X., Hernández-Pajares, M., Juan, M., Sanz, J. & Orús, R. 2002 (Oct). Analysis of the accuracy of the SBAS ionospheric corrections. In Proceedings of the 53rd International Astronautical Congress. International Astronautical Federation, Houston, Texas (USA). Paper: IAC-02-M3-01.
Keywords: satellite navigation, EGNOS, SBAS, ionosphere
Abstract: In recent years, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), have experienced a considerable growth of new applications and users. Safety critical applications, such as civil air radionavigation, require high levels of accuracy and integrity (system's ability to bound its own accuracy) that are not met in stand alone GNSS positioning. Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) provide differential GNSS corrections and integrity information to single frequency users. These corrections are combined with receiver measurements, and other local information, to obtain the final navigation solution and integrity protection bounds. One of the most important differential corrections is the ionospheric one, whose performance analisis is the goal of this paper. Different tests to analyze the accuracy of the SBAS ionospheric corrections are presented in this work. They involve, in particular, comparisons with the TOPEX Total Electron Content (TEC) measurements, which are independent from GPS ones, as well as the application of Long Baseline Ambiguity Resolution Techniques to compute very accurate ionospheric delays which are used as a reference values for comparisons. These tests have been applied using data sets gathered from the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) System Test Bed (ESTB) signal during a four month campaign. The results show some satellite dependent bias, that could affect to the accuracy of the navigation solution.
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{prats_02_analysis,
      author = {Xavier Prats and Manuel Hernández-Pajares and Miguel Juan and Jaume Sanz and Raül Orús},
      title = {Analysis of the accuracy of the SBAS ionospheric corrections},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 53rd International Astronautical Congress},
      publisher = {International Astronautical Federation},
      year = {2002},
      month = {Oct},
      address = {Houston, Texas (USA)},
      note = {Paper: IAC-02-M3-01}
      }
  
Mahout, V., Prats, X. & Mignot, J. 2002 (Sep). Modeling and flat control law for a fine pointing system based on semi active magnetic bearings. In Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on control applications. pp. 156-161. IEEE, Glasgow, Scotland (UK).
Keywords: Nonlinear systems, flat control, modeling, satellite, magnetic bearing
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{mahout_02_modeling,
      author = {Vincent Mahout and Xavier Prats and Jean Mignot},
      title = {Modeling and flat control law for a fine pointing system based on semi active magnetic bearings},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on control applications},
      publisher = {IEEE},
      year = {2002},
      month = {Sep},
      pages = {156-161},
      address = {Glasgow, Scotland (UK)},
      url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2117/9150},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CCA.2002.1040178}
      }
  
Orús, R., García-Fernandez, M., Hernández-Pajares, M., Juan, M., Sanz, J. & Prats, X. 2002 (Feb). Study of several models to provide ionospheric corrections to GNSSusers. In Proceedings of the 3rd Hispano-Portugueese conference in geodesyand geophysics. pp. 139-142. Comisión Española de Geodesia y Geofísica (CEGG), Secçao Portuguesa das Uniões Internacionais Astronómica e Geodésica e Geofísica (SPUIAGG), Technical University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain).
Keywords: satellite navigation, ionosphere
BibTeX:
      @inproceedings{orus_02_study,
      author = {Raül Orús and Miquel García-Fernandez and Manuel Hernández-Pajares and Miguel Juan and Jaume Sanz and Xavier Prats},
      title = {Study of several models to provide ionospheric corrections to GNSSusers},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 3rd Hispano-Portugueese conference in geodesyand geophysics},
      publisher = {Comisión Española de Geodesia y Geofísica (CEGG), Secçao Portuguesa das Uniões Internacionais Astronómica e Geodésica e Geofísica (SPUIAGG), Technical University of Valencia},
      year = {2002},
      month = {Feb},
      pages = {139-142},
      address = {Valencia (Spain)}
      }
  

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