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NtoM suggests a concept of operations for Medium-Altitude-Long-Endurance (MALE) and High-Altitude-Long-Endurance (HALE) Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS). It takes into account the current and expected workload of the pilots, and exploits the potential of Controller-Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) to provide a set of measures to backup the operations of those RPAS single pilots, acting as a kind of first officer to avoid mishaps. NtoM seeks a safe management of the handover process, and allows to react to unexpected situations like pilot incapacitation.

All these features, that could be leveraged for the one-to-one pilot-aircraft scenario, try to make feasible also a safe piloting of more than one aircraft at once in non-segregated airspace.

Example of flight assignations. The use of CPDLC is optional.

NtoM flight assignments

NtoM stages

As a collateral benefit, it allows for an optimization of the human resources of the operators, providing a way to schedule or assign the flight on the go to the pilots considering their particular skills.

Another key piece of the whole system is the implementation of the CPDLC display, designed to provide a guided, quick and intuitive interface. On its own, it could be a valuable tool for the training and future fully deployment of the CPDLC.

Some parts of the flight, limited by different criteria, could be assigned with preference to certain pilots.

The NtoM prototype is currently on development at an advanced stage, with a couple of papers under review. More info: mfas

Prototype screencasts


Dynamic representation of the workload in the face of an speed change.

Dynamic representation of the workload in the face of a direct to execution.


Procedure for the transfer of control.